Psych 1000 Week 1 Notes, Dr. Hebert
Psych 1000 Week 1 Notes, Dr. Hebert Psyc100
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Popular in Psychology And Social Behavior
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abbie Cantwell on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc100 at Tulane University taught by Dr. Thomas Herbert in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychology And Social Behavior at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
Dr Hebert Psych 1000 M/T/F 9:00 AM Week 1 Notes • What is psychology? The scientiﬁc study of behavior and mental processes. Pseudo psychology is NOT scientiﬁc(EX: astrology, palmistry, psychics). • • What makes psychology scientiﬁc is the practice of experimentation. • Hard science vs soft science: hard sciences (physics, chemistry, biology, psychology, etc.) are directly measuring what they’re studying while soft sciences(social science) are not using standards that are as quantitative. • Psychology deals with critical thinking. Four goals of psychology: 1. Description: what occurred 2. Explanation: why did it occur 3. Prediction: what is future behavior 4. Change: implement ﬁnding Clinical vs counseling: clinical deals with the science of the mental issue & counseling uses direct hands on technique. Forms of psychology: • Biopsychology/neuroscience: utilizes very invasive experimental techniques such as having people/animals take medication in order to study their reactions. • Clinical & counseling: the largest group of people that make a career of psychology fall into this category. • Cognitive psychology: less invasive experimental psychology (ﬁrst form of psychology). • Psychology emerges in late nineteenth century. • Wilhelm Wundt: father of psychology from Germany (1879). Structuralism: identiﬁed the building blocks of the mind through • introspection(Wundt and his student Titchner were the key leaders). The problem with structuralism is that it requires a trained, educated subject and modern psychologist prefer to catch their subject off guard in order to obtain a more genuine response. • Reductionistic method: this was one of the methods that structuralism employed. It involves explaining something on a microlevel and allowing the subject to see the big picture. • Functionalism: how the mind works to adapt an organism to their environment(William James is key leader). This is the closest form to modern psychology. It’s famous for opening up the possibilities of subjects to run experiments on because you can study animals and children as well. • Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic: studies unconscious processes & unresolved past conﬂicts (Freud founded this theory). It focuses on the theory that the animalistic part of the brain is battling modern societal behavior. It’s important to note that Freud was inﬂuenced by Darwin (focused on that humans evolved from an animalistic past). This leaves us constantly in a state of struggle between our animal instinct and behavior that is socially acceptable. It is considered to be kind of a pessimistic theology. • Freud was his mother’s favorite child (relevant because his theories are very centralized among how much a mother affects the development of her children). • Seven major perspectives of modern psychology: psychodynamic, behavioral, humanistic, cognitive, biological, evolutionary, and sociocultural. • John B Watson(1913): founded the behavioral perspective that focused on environmental inﬂuences on behavior. Also, it rejected introspection. • Behavioral Perspective: (lead primarily by Watson, Pavlov, and Skinner) it focuses on observable, measurable inﬂuences form the environment on behavior. Skinner believed psychologists should stick to research that is measurable. • Skinner referred to the mind as a “black box” not meaning that it’s empty but rather that you can’t see inside it. • Humanist Perspective: (Rogers and Marlow were the leaders) this perspective is the opposite of Freudian theories. Humans have free will! Humans are different from animals because we seek self actualization. • We are the only animals that have existential dilemmas. Dr Hebert gave the example that your dog doesn’t know he’s going to die one day. • Cognitive Perspective: analyzes information processing. We don’t have a great leader for the cognitive perspective but Dr Hebert likes Ebbinghaus. • Originally it was believed humans thought in series but we think in a parallel format. This means that when we absorb information multiple parts of the brain process it making out processing time much faster. • Neuroscience/Biopsychology: invasive animal(including human) studies. • The brains of males and females are very similar. • Evolutionary Perspective: natural selection, adaptations, and evolution • Sociocultural: interaction between society and individual • Brown vs Board of Education: ﬁrst time psychology appears in a court of law thanks to Mamie & Kenneth Clark. • Gestalt Psychology: (lead by Wertheimer) whole is greater than parts and emphasized the power of perception. • Research can either be classiﬁed as Basic(conducted to advance scientiﬁc knowledge) or Applied(designed to solve current practical problems). Both are equally important. • Basic seeks answers for questions such as “how is hunger controlled by the brain” vs Applied is used for speciﬁc application problems. • Research ideas come from observation and past works. It is conducted using the scientiﬁc method. • Testable hypothesis: separates science from philosophy. • Freud is a bit more philosophical than other psychologists. • Thomas Khun: came up with the following terms: • Paradigm Shift: scientists have a way of doing things then someone comes up with a better way and everyone changes to the better method. • Normal Science: experiments are being done and the results mainly support the existing theory. • Revolutionary Science: when there is a conﬂict between competing theories until everyone is testing it and we arrive to a new theory.