Word List Definitions
Word List Definitions AHC 115
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Patterson on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AHC 115 at Volunteer State Community College taught by Abby Cooper in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views.
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Chapter 1: Basic Word Structure 1. adenoma — a benign tumor characterized by cells that form recognizable glandular structures or cells that are derived from glandular epithelium 2. arthralgia — joint pain (also called arthrodynia) 3. biopsy — the removal of living tissue from the body for examination (usually under a microscope); performed to establish or confirm diagnosis, estimate prognosis or follow the course of a disease 4. cephalic — pertaining to the head 5. cystoscopy — a direct visual examination of the urinary tract using a cystoscope 6. cerebra l — pertaining to the cerebrum 7. cytology — the study of cells, their structure, origin, function and pathology 8. dermatitis — inflammation of the skin 9. diagnosis — the determination of the nature of a case of diseases; the art of distinguishing one disease or condition from another by the scientific evaluation of signs, symptoms, history, test results and procedures 10. lectroencephalogram (EEG) — a graphic chart that traces the electric potential produced by the brain cells; detected by electrodes applied to the scalp 11. epigastric — pertaining to the epigastrium 12. erythrocyte — one of the elements found in peripheral blood; most often referring to a mature red blood cell, a biconcave, yellowish disk adapted by nature of its configuration and hemoglobin content to the transport of oxygen 13. excision — surgical removal by cutting, as amputation or organ removal 14. gastrostomy — surgical creation of an artificial opening into the stomach through the abdominal wall for the purpose of feeding a patient who is unable to swallow 15. gynecology — the branch of medicine that is concerned with diseases of the female genital tract 16. hematology — the scientific study of the blood and bloodforming tissues 17. hematoma — a localized collection of blood (usually clotted) in an organ, tissue or space caused by a break in the wall of a blood vessel 18. hepatitis — an inflammatory condition of the liver, marked by jaundice, anorexia, abnormal liver function, claycolored stools and teacolored urine 19. hypogastric — located inferior to the stomach; pertaining to the hypogastrium, the middle part of the most inferior region of the abdomen; pertaining to the internal iliac artery 20. hypoglycemia — an abnormally decreased concentration of glucose in the blood, usually the result of an overadministration of insulin 21. incision — a cut or wound created by the cutting with a sharp instrument; the act of cutting 22. iatrogenic — caused by treatment, diagnostic procedures or other activities of a physician; applied to any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of a physician or surgeon or through exposure to the environment of a health care facility 23. leukocyte — a colorless blood cell capable of squeezing through intracellular spaces by diapedesis and migrating by ameboid movements 24. leukemia — a progressive malignant disease of bloodforming organs characterized by the replacement of bone marrow proliferation leukocytes and their precursors; a distortion in the number and form of white blood cells in the blood and the infiltration of the liver, spleen and lymph nodes 25. nephrectomy — surgical removal of the kidney 26. gastroenterology — the study of the stomach and intestines and their diseases 27. neuralgia — pain extending along one or more nerves 28. oncology — the study of tumors; the body of knowledge related to tumors 29. ophthalmoscope — an instrument with a mirror and lenses used to examine the interior of the eye (also called funduscope) 30. pathogenic — capable of causing morbid symptoms or diseases 31. pathologist — an expert in the study of disease 32. pericardium — the fibroserous sac surrounding the heart and the roots of the great vessels, consisting of an inner serous layer (the pericardium serous) and external layer of the fibrous tissue (pericardium fibrosum) 33. prognosis — a prediction as to the probable outcome of a disease based on condition of the patient and the usual course of disease in similar cases 34. retrocardiac — located behind the heart 35. psychology — the branch of science that studies the mind and mental processes, investigating their relationship to human and animal behavior 36. radiology — the branch of medicine that deals with radioactive substances and with the diagnosis and treatment of disease by using a variety of visualization techniques and various sourced of radiant energy (formerly called roentgenology) 37. rhiniti — inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose, often attended by nasal discharge and swelling of the mucosa 38. thrombocyte — a platelet, the smallest cell in the blood, essential for the clothing of blood and in maintaining hemostasis 39. gastrectomy — surgical removal of all or part of the stomach (also called gastric resection) Chapter 2: Terms Pertaining to the Body as a Whole 1 adipose — the fat in adipose tissue; of a fatty nature 40. nabolism — the phase of metabolism in which simple substances are synthesized into the complex materials of living tissue 41. anterior — located in the front or in the forward part of a structure 42. body cavities — space within the body that contains and protects the organs; dorsal cavity, ventral cavity, thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity, abdominopelvic cavity 43. catabolism — the metabolic breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones, often resulting in a release of energy 44. cytoplasm — all of the substance of a cell, except the nucleus 45. craniotomy — incision into the cranium; any operation on the cranium 46. divisions of the spine — cervical (neck), thoracic (chest/trunk), lumbar (low back) and sacral (pelvic) 47. distal — away from or the farthest from a point of origin or attachment; remote; opposed to proximal 48. dorsa l — pertaining to the back 49. histology — the department of anatomy concerned with the composition, structure and function of tissues (also called microscopical anatomy) 50. inferio — situated below or lower than a given point of reference; directed downward 51. larynx — the organ of voice; a musculocartilaginous structure connected to the superior part of the trachea and to the pharynx inferior to the tongue and hyoid bone; serves as the essential sphincter guarding entry into the trachea 52. lateral — pertaining to a side 53. mediastinum — the mass of tissue and organs located in the middle of the thorax between the pleural sacs; extends from the sternum to the vertebral column and contains all the viscera except the lungs 54. metabolism — the sum of all the physical and chemical processes by which living organized substance is produced and maintained (anabolism) and also the transformation by which energy is made available for the uses of the organism (catabolism) 55. posterior — directed toward or situated at the back (also called dorsal) 56. karyotype — the chromosomal constitution of the cell nucleus; by extension, the photomicrograph of chromosomes arranged 57. prone — lying face downward 58. proxima l — nearest to a point of reference, as to a center or medium line or to the point of attachment or origin 59. planes of the body —frontal plane (anterior & posterior parts), transverse plane (superior & inferior parts), median plane (left & right parts) 60. supine — lying with the face upward 61. superior — situated above or directed upward 62. viscera l — pertaining to the viscus 63. intervertebra l — between two vertebrae 64. inguina l — pertaining to the groin 65. ventra l — pertaining to the abdomen or to any venter; directed toward or situated on the belly surface Chapter 3: Suffixes 1 acromegaly — a chronic disease of adults marked by the enlargement of distal portions of the skeleton (nose, ears, jaws, toes and fingers) and caused by hyper secretion of growth hormone 66. anemia — a reduction in the concentration of hemoglobin or erythrocytes in the blood to levels below normal 67. angioplasty — surgical reconstruction of a blood vessel by an angiographic procedure to eliminate areas of narrowing 68. angiography — radiographic visualization of the internal anatomy of the heart and the blood vessels following the injections of contrast medium; used as a diagnostic tool in conditions suck as stroke and myocardial infarction 69. arteriol — the smallest of the arterial branches (also called arteriola) 70. rteriosclerosis — the thickening, loss of elasticity and calcification of the walls of the smaller arteries 71. atrophy — the wasting away or diminution in size or activity of a body part; to undergo this process 72. axillar — pertaining to the axilla 73. biopsy — the removal of living tissue from the body for examination (usually under a microscope), performed to establish or confirm diagnosis, estimate prognosis or follow the course of a disease 1. blepharoptosis — the drooping of the upper eyelid as a result of paralysis 2. cardiomyopathy — a diagnostic term denoting primary noninflammatory disease of the heart muscle, often of unknown etiology and not caused by hypertension, congenital, valvular, pericardial or ischemic disease 3. chronic — persisting over a long period of time 4. erythrocyte — one of the elements found in peripheral blood; most often referring to a mature red blood cell, a biconcave, yellowish disk adapted by nature to its configuration and hemoglobin content to the transport of oxygen 5. hemolysis — the breakdown of the erythrocyte membrane, causing the release of hemoglobin 6. hypertrophy — the overgrowth or enlargement of an organ or body part caused by an increase in the size of its cells 7. ischemia — a deficiency of blood in a part, usually caused by construction or obstruction of a blood vessel and often marked by pain and organ dysfunction 8. leukocytosis — an abnormal increase in the number of circulating leukocytes (white blood cells) 9. laparoscope — an instrument, similar to an endoscope, that is inserted through the abdominal wall for inspection of the peritoneal cavity 10. metastasis — the process by which tumor cells spread from one part or organ to another not directly connected with it; a tumor that develops distant from the site of origin 11. morphology — the form and structure of a particular organism, organ or part 12. myalgia — muscular pain, often accompanied by malaise (also called myodynia) 13. mastectomy — excision of a breast (also called mammectomy) 14. myeloma — a neoplasm composed of the type of cells normally found in the bone marrow 15. necrosis — localized death of tissue and cells in response to disease or injury 16. nephrologist — person who studies and treats condition related to the kidney 17. neuralgia — pain extending along one or more nerves 18. osteomalacia — inadequate or delayed mineralization of osteoid in the bone, leading to a loss of calcification of the matrix and resulting in a softening of the bone 19. peritonea l — pertaining to the peritoneum 20. splenomegaly — an abnormal enlargement of the spleen 21. tracheostomy — surgical creation of an artificial opening into the trachea through the neck (also called tracheotomy); creation of an artificial opening in the anterior trachea for the purpose of inserting a tube to relieve upper airway obstruction and assist ventilation; the opening created by other of these procedures 22. horacentesis — surgical puncture of the parietal cavity for diagnostic or therapeutic aspiration of fluid (also called pleurocentisis and thoracocentisis) 23. thrombocytopenia — a reduction in the number of platelets, the most common cause of bleeding disorders (also called thrombopenia) 24. hemostasis — termination of bleeding, either by the physiologic properties of vasoconstriction and coagulation or by surgical or chemical means; the interruption of blood flow through a vessel to a body part Chapter 4: Prefixes 1. abductor — a muscle that abducts, or draws a body structure away from the midline 2. adductor — a muscle that adducts, or draws a body part toward the median plane 3. apnea — the cessation of spontaneous respiration 4. benign — not cancerous; not recurrent; favorable for recovery 5. bifurcation — the division of something into two branches or parts 6. bilateral — pertaining to two sides 7. bradycardia — a slow heartbeat, less than 60 beats per minute 8. congenital anomaly — any abnormality existing at birth, especially a structural one; may be inherited genitally, acquiring during gestation, or inflicted during parturition 9. contraindication — any factor or condition, especially of disease, that renders a particular treatment improper or undesirable 10. contralatera l — pertaining to, situated on, or affecting the opposite side, as opposed to ipsilateral 11. dehydration — an excessive loss of water from the body; removal of water from a substance 12. dysplasia — any abnormality of development of organs or tissues 13. dyspnea — shortness of breath; labored or difficult breathing 14. endocardium — the endothelial lining of the chambers of the heart and the connective tissue bed on which it lies; contains smooth muscle cells, small good vessels and collagen fibers 15. epithelium — combining form denoting relationship to the skin or epithelium 16. hyperplasia — an abnormal increase or multiplication in the number of normal cells of a body part 17. infracosta l — inferior to all the ribs or to a single rib 18. intercosta l — pertaining to between the ribs 19. malaise — a vague, uneasy feeling of bodily fatigue and discomfort, often marking the onset of disease and persisting throughout its course 20. metamorphosis — a change of the form or nature of a thing or person into a completely different one, by natural or supernatural means 21. neonata l — or or pertaining to newborn children (or mammals) 22. neoplasm — a new and abnormal growth of tissue in some part of the body, especially as a characteristic of cancer 23. percutaneous — made, done or effected through the skin 24. prolapse — a slipping forward or down of one of the part or organs of the body 25. relapse — a deterioration in someone’s state of health after a temporary improvement 26. remission — a diminution of the seriousness or intensity of disease or pain; a temporary recovery 27. retroperitonea l — situated or occurring behind the peritoneum 28. subcutaneous — situated or applied under the skin 29. symbiosis — interaction between two different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both 30. symmetry — the quality of being made up of exactly similar parts facing each other or around an axis 31. symphysis — the process of growing together; a place where two bones are closely joined, either forming an immovable joint or completely fused 32. tachypnea — abnormally rapid breathing 33. unilatera l — relating to, occurring on or affecting only one side of an organ or structure or of the body Chapter 5: Digestive System 1. appendectomy — surgical removal of the appendix 34. appendix — a tubeshaped sac attached to and opening into the lower end of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals 35. anorexia — a lack or loss of appetite for food; an emotional disorder characterized by an obsessive desire to lose weight by refusing to eat 36. bile — a bitter greenishbrown alkaline fluid that aids digestion and is secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder 37. celiac — of or relating to the abdomen 38. cholecystectomy — surgical removal of the gallbladder 39. c holedochotomy — incision into the common bile duct 40. colostomy — establishment of an artificial connection between the lumen of the colon and the skin 41. emulsification — the breakdown of fat globules in the duodenum into tiny droplets, which provide a larger surface area on which the enzyme pancreatic lipase can act to digest the fats into fatty acids and glycerol 42. duodenum — the first place of the small intestine immediately beyond the stomach, leading to the jejunum 43. stomatitis — inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth 44. hepatomegaly — abnormal engagement of the liver 45. hiatal hernia — the protrusion of an organ, typically the stomach, through the esophagus opening in the diaphragm 46. hypoglossa l — pertaining to nerves and other structures beneath the tongue; sublingual 47. jaundice — a syndrome characterized by greater than normal levels of bilirubin in the blood and the depositing of bile pigment in the skin, mucous membranes and sclera, resulting a yellow discoloration (also called icterus) 48. mastication — chewing 49. palatoplasty — surgical reconstruction of the palate 50. parentera l — pertaining to treatment through some route other than the alimentary canal 51. peristalsis — the involuntary constriction and relaxation of the muscles of the intestine or another canal, creating wavelike movements that push the contents of the canal forward 52. pharyngea l — of or relating to the pharynx 53. postprandia l — during or relating to the period after dinner or lunch 54. pyloric sphincter — a ringlike thickening the circular muscle of the stomach around the pylorus, separating it from the duodenum 55. Crohn disease — a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of unknown origin that usually affects the ileum, colon, or other parts of the gastrointestinal tract; manifestations include "cobblestone" ulcerations on the intestinal wall and the development of scar tissue (also called regional enteritis) 56. villi — tiny vascular protrusions or processes, especially protrusions from the free surface of a membrane; a general term for such structures 57. volvulus — an obstruction caused by twisting of the stomach or intestine 58. sublingua l — situated or applied under the tongue 59. ascites — the accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, causing abdominal swelling 60. cirrhosis — a chronic disease of the liver marked by degeneration of cells, inflammation, and fibrous thickening of tissue; typically a result of alcoholism or hepatitis 61. dysphagia — difficulty or discomfort in swallowing, as a symptom of disease 62. etiology — the cause, set of causes or manner of causation of a disease or condition 63. flatu — gas in or from the stomach or intestines, produced by swallowing air or by bacterial fermentation 64. idiopathic — relating to or denoting any disease or condition that arises spontaneously or for which the cause is unknown 1. cholelithiasis — the formation of gallstones Chapter 6: Additional Suffixes and Digestive System Terminology 1 atresia — absence or abnormal narrowing if an opening or passage in the body 74. dyspepsia — indigestion 75. herniorrhaphy — surgical repair of a hernia (also called hernioplasty) 76. stool guaiac — test to detect the presence of fecal occult blood (blood invisible in feces) 77. nasogastric intubation — placement of a tube from the nose, down the back of the throat, then into the stomach, for the purpose of removing gastric contents 78. holedocholithiasis — presence of calculi (stones) in the common bile duct 79. hematemesis — the vomiting of blood, indicating rapid upper GI bleeding 80. hemoptysis — expectoration of blood or bloodstained sputum from the respiratory tract 81. gastrorrhagia — hemorrhage from the stomach 82. cholangiography — a radiographic image of the bile ducts obtained after a contrast medium has been introduced orally, percutaneously, or intravenously 83. lower GI series — a medical procedure used to examine and diagnose problems with the human colon (large intestine) 84. upper GI series — series of Xrays of the esophagus, stomach and small intestine 85. polyphagia — uncontrolled overeating; gluttony 86. abdominoplasty — surgical tightening of the abdominal muscles 87. cholestasis — cessation or suppression of bile flow as a result of intrahepatic or extra hepatic causes 88. paracentesis — therapeutic or diagnosis aspiration of fluid from a body cavity by surgical puncture with a needle or other hollow instrument