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CHEM245: Ch.2: Notes

by: Brie

CHEM245: Ch.2: Notes CHEM 245


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About this Document

These notes cover the CHEM245 lecture on Chapter 2: Acids and Bases.
Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry
Patricia K Somers
Class Notes
Colorado State, Colorado State University, Organic Chemistry, Chemistry, chem245, Lecture Notes, acids, acids and bases
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brie on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 245 at Colorado State University taught by Patricia K Somers in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry in Chemistry at Colorado State University.

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Date Created: 09/04/16
CHEM245 Chapter 2: Acids and Bases Acids v. Bases  Acid: Loses a proton (H)  Base: Gains a proton (H) Reversible Reactions vs. Irreversible  Most acid base reactions are reversible  Reversible o Reactants form the products and the products can form the reactants.  Ex) A + B C +D  Irreversible o Reactants can form the products but the products can’t form the reactants.  Ex) A + B C + D Acids and Conjugate Bases  When an acid loses a proton (H), the conjugate base is formed  Stronger the acid, weaker the conjugate base Bases and Conjugate Acids  When a base gains a proton (H), the conjugate acid is formed  HCL +H2O REACTION Determining Acid Strengths  Ka: The measure of acid dissociation  pKa = -logKa  The larger the Ka, the stronger the acid  The smaller the pKa, the stronger the acid o pKa < 1 Very strong acid o pKa = 1-3 Moderately strong acid o pKa = 3-5 Weak acids o pKa = 5-15 Very weak acids o pKa > 15 Extremely weak acid  pH: Indicates the concentration of protons in a solution o pH = -log[H+] o Lower the pH number = more acidity Determining Favored Sides  The weaker acid is favored Determining Which Reactant is the Acid  The acid will have the lower pKa (stronger acid = lower pKa)  Strong Acids: o HCl o H2SO4 o HI o HBr o HNO3 Behaving as an Acid and as a Base  Curved arrows point from electron donor to electron acceptor  Things that can act as an acid and as a base: o Alcohol o Carboxylic Acid o Amine Structural Features that Determine Acidity 1. Electronegativity  The greater the electronegativity, the greater the stability.  C < N < O < F  CH < NH < H O < HF 4 3 2 2. Size  More important than electronegativity  Stability of anion increases down the periodic row  HI >HBr > HCl > HF 3. Hybridization  Alkanes: Hydrogen and carbon atoms (saturated hydrocarbons) arranged in a tree-like structure (all carbon bonds are single) o Methane o Ethane o Propane  Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contains a double bond o Ethylene o Propylene  Alkynes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain a triple bond 2 3  sp (most electronegative) > sp > sp (least electronegative)  More bonds = stronger acid (triple > double > single) 4. Substitution  Will pull electrons  More electronegative substituent=stronger acid 5. Resonance  Rules of Writing Resonance: 1. Full Valence Electrons: All atoms must have complete octets (H is an exception) 2. Structures that have greater covalent bonds contribute more than structures with less covalent bonds 3. Structures that have a charge separation contribute less 4. 4. Structures that have a (-) charge on a more electronegative atom will be favored in comparison to structures that have a (-) charge on the less electronegative atom. Charged or Neutral?  Carboxylic Acid o Neutral in acidic form o Charged in basic form  Alcohol o Neutral in acidic form o Charged in basic form  Amine o Charged in acidic form o Neutral in basic form


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