History 2365: American History to 1877
History 2365: American History to 1877 History 2365
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tyler Varzeas on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 2365 at Baylor University taught by Gerhardt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see History of the United States to 1877 in History at Baylor University.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
History 2365: American History to 1877 26 August 2016 Spain in America Competition with Portugal o Treaty of Tordesillas Pope literally split discovered territory in half in order to make both Spain and Portugal happy. Conquistadores o Begin making journeys to the New World o They hear rumors of the amount of gold in Aztec Mexico Cortes and the Aztecs o Takes 600 men from Cuba to Mexico in order to conquer the Aztecs o Although Cortez is far outnumbered, they possess much more advanced weapons than the Aztecs *Aztecs did not believe Cortez and his men were Gods* Plunder and settlement Encomienda System A means of entitling discovered land If Spanish conquistadores found land, they owned all labor and land, but they must offer protection and religion to Natives. Catholicism in the New World o Bartolome de las Casas Reforms were made by Spain to make conditions less harsh in the New World. Black Legend: Idea that Spanish were barbarians and savagely eliminated the Natives. Ideas being circulated by English, French, Dutch, etc. *The New World makes Spain fabulously wealthy* The French and Canada Slow development o Still looking for a western water route to Asia o They think climate in Canada is too harsh to live in Native American Relationships o French see Native relationships as vital to trade and economic success o French fur traders often lived with Native tribes and learned their languages Exploration of the Great Lakes and Mississippi o Discovered many river ways from these two bodies of water French Catholicism o French Jesuits: More successful than English in conversion of Native’s to Christianity 1700, only 15,000 French residents in the New World The English in North America Early voyages o John Cabbot credited for first English ship to reach America o Motivated by all water route to Asia o England does not jump directly into colonization of the New World Birth of English Protestantism The Protestant Reformation (1517) o Henry VIII and the Church of England Religion, War, and Nationalism o Navy almost nonexistent and small army o Ideas of anticlericalism in England o Henry VIII marries Catherine to form alliance with Spain Henry wishes for divorce when Catherine cannot provide a male heir for him o Henry VIII breaks ties between England and Catholicism o After Henry VIII dies, Edward takes the throne as a young man o Under Elizabeth I, Protestantism is restored to England Hakluyt and the Campaign for the New World o Wrote a book of collected stories of people who have visited the New World o Natural Resources in New World will boost desire to colonize o Does not address the fact that Natives own the land History 2365: American History of 1877 29 August 2016 New World Experiments Jamestown and the Chesapeake Settlement and survival o JointStock Company The idea that a group of investors buy stock in a company and hope for profit on the stock Creates ability for settlements to occur in America 1606: London company gains charter that allows for creation of settlement in Virginia o Many settlers believed there would be gold and jewels everywhere, like the Spanish had experienced o John Smith = Saving grace of Jamestown o Tobacco John Ralph discovers cross breeding with native tobacco and tobacco back home Becomes very popular in England House of Burgesses Representative government in America Headright System Any man who comes to Virginia will receive 50 acres for himself and every person, family and laborers (everyone gets 50 acres each) Indentured Servants A person pays for someone else’s voyage to the New World, then that person owes the sponsor a certain amount of years of labor Generally white men Most people in this system died Hugely exploitative form of labor o Many of the political issues in England affected Maryland Designed to be a Catholic refuge, but did not turn out the way it was supposed to *Chesapeake = founding of Jamestown and Maryland* New England The Puritans and the Pilgrims o Puritans wanted to purify the Anglican Church o Held to more Calvinist doctrine Believed God already knew and chose who was allowed into heaven before they were even born o Want to removed ceremonies and artistic designs o Believed every single person can read scripture; they don’t need a clergy to read it to them o Wish to get rid of hierarchy of church o Separatism: Puritans with pessimistic outlook on church Pilgrims were separatists: started their own congregations. Large amount move to Holland looking for freedom Plymouth Colony o Pilgrims wish for a new settlement to return to their English culture o Receive a charter from the King to the land of Virginia o End up landing in Massachusetts, making the charter invalid o Pilgrims write up The Mayflower Compact Landmark Document! Establishes a semigovernmental society in Americas “A City on a Hill” Congregationalism Puritans believe the establishment of a more efficient and spiritual church will cause Anglican Church to notice and reform its ways o Puritans restructure Church so that people within church can vote on doctrines, pastors, and other issues History 2365: American History to 1877 31 August 2016 Competing Truths in New England Roger Williams o Criticizes Massachusetts government o Believes in separatism from Anglican Church o Government should have no part in punishing people for religious reasons o Becomes founder of Rhode Island Anne Hutchinson o Antinomian controversy o Teaches that there are things God wants us to do other than what is written in the Bible o Kicked out of church and exiled to Rhode Island Rhode Island has immense religious freedom and tolerance History 2365: American History to 1877 2 September 2016 Diversity in the Middle Colonies The Dutch and New Netherlands o They begin to create the largest merchant fleet o Dutch men engaged in fur trade o New Netherlands of the only nations to actually pay for the land from the Natives o Dutch begin to trade the first African Slaves into North America o English take Dutch colony without a fight Quakers in America o Religious groups who didn’t appoint specific clergy o Gender roles of Quakers (almost equal) creates tension with others o William Penn establishes Pennsylvania to create a religious and ethnically tolerant place One of which being Quakers Penn guarantees people of Pennsylvania have freedom from religious persecution, due process, no taxation without representation o Charter of Liberties (1701): Representatives who speak for the people *DIVERSITY = Key component of the Middle Colonies* The Southern Colonies Carolinas o Settlement from Barbados Saw Carolinas as a place to expand wealth o Rice became economic stabilizer and motivation for labor Georgia o Spanish Competition Feared the Northern expansion of Spanish Colonizers o James Oglethorpe Establishes Georgia as a debtors prison Transplants people from England to Georgia; They work to pay off their debts
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