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Biology 100 Week 1 notes

by: Taylor Fortenberry

Biology 100 Week 1 notes 100

Marketplace > University of Montevallo > Biology > 100 > Biology 100 Week 1 notes
Taylor Fortenberry
University of Montevallo
GPA 2.88

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Chemistry basics
Principles of Biology
Martin Klinger
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Fortenberry on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 100 at University of Montevallo taught by Martin Klinger in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at University of Montevallo.

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Date Created: 09/04/16
Biology 100 Chemistry Basics 8/23/16  Atom­ smallest particle of an element o 114 known elements  Main elements needed for life o Hydrogen (H), Carbon (C), Iron (Fe), Sodium (Na), Oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N),  Chlorine (Cl),  Potassium (K), Phosphorous (P), Sulfur (S)  Structure of an atom o Main subatomic particles  Protons, neutrons, electrons Mass (weight) Charge Symbol Particle 1.0000 +1 p+ Proton 1.0005 0 n◦ Neutron ~0.0005 ­1 e‾ Electron  p+  and n◦ are in nucleus of atom  takes up very little space o 1/10,000 of the volume of the atom  Nucleus contains most of mass of atom  e‾ are outside nucleus  e‾ determine chemical properties of atoms and how they react with other atoms  Number of protons: Atomic Number o Determines what the element is  Sum of p+ and n◦ = Mass Number # protons # neutrons Mass # 6 6 12=C 12 6 8 14=C 14  Example:  atom of N—7 p+ ; atom of C—6p+ ; atom of H—1 p+ ; atom of O—8 p+ ;  atom of Na—11 p+  Isotopes:  same number of protons and different numbers of neutrons o Example:  Carbon­14­>used for carbon dating o Usually an atom has the same e‾ as p+  Electrons are in electron clouds around nucleus  These e‾ clouds determine chemical reactions and how they occur  Atoms linked together to form molecules o Held together by chemical bonds  Attractive force that holds atoms together  Chem. Bonds form between outer energy levels of 2 or more atoms  e‾ clouds contain levels of different energies o level furthest from nucleus has highest (most) energy  Outer energy level of atom usually holds up to 8 e‾s 1 Biology 100 Chemistry Basics 8/23/16  When outer level has 8 e‾s, it is full and it is most stable   When outer level isn’t full, atom is not stable   Chemical Bonds:  form between 2 unstable atoms  +  so they both become more  stable  +   2 main types of chemical bonds that are important in biology: o Ionic o Covalent  Ionic Bonds: 1 or more e‾s are transferred from one atom to another o Both atoms become ions  Atom that lost e‾s now has a negative charge o Negative ion  Sodium ion:  p+ = 11+ e‾1 = 10‾  Chlorine ion:  p+ = 17 +e‾1 = 18‾  + and – ions have opposite charges and so are attracted to each other o Example:  Na 11p+ and 11 e‾s ­> are arranged in 3 clouds* 1 outer electron o Chlorine Cl:  17 p+ and 17 e‾s* 7 outer electrons  Na atom  and Na ion   Cl atom  and Cl ion   Billions of Na ions and Cl ions are attracted to each other ­> form  ionic bond ­> NaCl (Sodium Chloride) table salt  If an ionic compound dissolves easily in water:  electrolytes  Covalent Bonds:  when electrons are shared between atoms o Example:  O 8+ ( 6 outer ring electrons) and H 1+ ( one electron) and H 1+ ( one  electron) O + 2H ­> H2O aka water  Covalent bonds  It is much harder to separate covalent bonds atoms from a covalent bond than an ionic  bond o Covalent bond is stronger  Most molecules of life:  proteins, sugars, fats, DNA, RNA, etc. ­> formed by covalent  bonds  Water:  very special properties o Can form “Hydrogen bonds” between water molecules  Much weaker than ionic or covalent bonds o Example: . . . . . . . . . .  Many many H bonds ­> can produce a strong attractive force  Surface tension of water 2 Biology 100 Chemistry Basics 8/23/16  Takes a lot of heat to make water boil 3 Biology 100 Chemistry Basics 8/25/16  Donald Henderson 1928­2016  Smallpox—virus o One of the worst diseases to mankind o Goes back 5,000 years  1850­1950 killed ~500 million people  Before 1967, smallpox killed ~ 2 million people a year in Asia, Africa,  and South America  1967:  Henderson took over as chief of WHO campaign to vaccinate people  By 1980, smallpox had been completely eradicated  (air in balloon experiment;  air: 1 sec,  water:  30 sec+)  Acids, Bases, and Salts  Acids:  ionic compounds that release H (hydrogen ions) when dissolved in water +  Bases:  ionic compounds that removes H  ions from solution when dissolved in water o Most bases release OH (Hydroxide ion) in water  Salts:  ionic compounds that do not release either H  or OH in water o Example:  NaCl    Strong and weak acids and bases +  Strong Acid:  releases nearly all of its H  ions in water o Example:  Hydrochloric acid (HCl)/ Sulfuric acid (H SO )2 4  Weak Acid:  releases only a few of its H  ions in water o Example:  ascorbic acid (vitamin C)/ acetic acid (~5% vinegar)/ phosphoric acid  Strong Base:  releases nearly all of ts OH  in water  Example:  NaOH (Sodium  Hydroxide)  Weak Base:  releases very few OH in water o Example:  Magnesium Hydroxide, Calcium Hydroxide (aka Tums and antacids)  pH:  scale that describes the degree to which a solution is acidic or basic (alkaline)  pH scale 1­14    1 very acidic           7 neutral            14 very basic  Mix an acid and a base o Example:  HCl + NaOH (in water) ­>  H  + Cl + Na  OH + ­ ­ + + ­ o Cl + Na  ­> NaCl (table salt) and ­> H  + OH ­> H O (wa2er)  Buffer:  pH of blood must stay in a very narrow range o pH of blood ~7.4  This is achieved by natural substances in blood:  buffers o If blood becomes more acidic, pH has gone down, lots more H  ions + +  Buffer takes up extra H  ions, pH goes back up to 7.4  Numerical Prefixes 1 Mono 2 Di 3 Tri 4 Tetra 5 Penta 1 Biology 100 Molecules of Life 8/25/16 6 Hexa Many Poly  Carbon:  unusual properties o Example:  Carbon can combine with other C atoms to form long chains  Carbon can form rings o Example:  Each C atom can  form covalent bonds with up to 4 other atoms o Example:  C­H H H H  CH   aka4Methane ­> “natural gas” o C­H “single bond” share one pair of electrons  C can also form double bonds –C=C­ or O=C=O ­> CO  aka C2rbon Dioxide H­ H­­H       C=O             Acetone Chain (nail polish remover)     H­­C    Chemical definitions: o “organic” contains C o “inorganic” does not contain C  Many molecules in bilogy have C chains with “functional groups” attached (like charm  bracelets) o Example: ­C­     C­       C­   C­C­C­C­C­ H­ ­H H­ ­H     C   N      OH  CH 3          2H           ­OH  Methyl      Amino       Hydroxyl (not Hydroxide; not OH­ ; does not come off   in water)  4 main types of organic molecules in living things o Carbohydrates (sugars) o Proteins o Lipids (fats) o Nucleic acids (DNA, RNA)  Carbohydrates o important for:  energy and structure  most carbohydrates contain hydroxyls (­OH) o example:    Simple Sugars  Monosaccharides 2 Biology 100 Molecules of Life 8/25/16 o Mono = 1 & saccharide = Greek “sweet”  Example:  glucose, fructose, galactose  Attach 2 monosaccharides to each other:  Disaccharides o Example:  glucose + galactose = lactose aka “milk sugar”  Complex Carbohydrates:  many monosaccharides linked together in long chains (many) ­> Polysaccharides o Example:  cellulose (cannot digest cellulose), starch (can not digest cellulose),  glycogen (chains of glucose)  Differences in how glucoses ae attached to each other  Proteins:  important for:  structure, content of cell activities (enzymes), transport or  carrier molecules o Transport:  move molecules from one part of the cell to another o Smallest unit called amino acid  20 natural amino acids:  make up all proteins  All amino acids have 3 parts:  amino group (NH2), acid group, side chain abbreviated by letter “R” o Can be many different groups of atoms  1 amino acid differs from another by its “R” group  Basic amino acid structure:    3


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