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History 101 Week 1 notes

by: Taylor Fortenberry

History 101 Week 1 notes 101

Marketplace > University of Montevallo > History > 101 > History 101 Week 1 notes
Taylor Fortenberry
University of Montevallo
GPA 2.88

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Mesopotamia, Egypt
History of World Civ I
Robert Barone
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Fortenberry on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at University of Montevallo taught by Robert Barone in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see History of World Civ I in History at University of Montevallo.


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Date Created: 09/04/16
Wednesday, August 24, 2016 History101 Mesopotamia • Stone Age • 2 periods Old Stone Age & New Stone Age • Hunter gatherer to agriculture • • Paleolithic group workers • Teamwork A. 7500 BCE--3200 BCE • Coming of New Stone Age • Neolithic revolution • 1st agricultural revolution • Farming • 3 main crops: rice, wheats, maize (corn) • Diet changes dramatically • More carbohydrates from breads • Domesticating animals for meat/farming • Goats, sheep, cattle, etc. • Cats: catch vermin • Dogs: food source, protection, herding • Neolithic period shorter than Paleolithic • Creation of set hierarchy • Social & gender separation • Women left to childbirth and care • Men left to farm 1 Wednesday, August 24, 2016 • Development of personal wealth • "Private property" • Neolithic period creates middle class, monarchies, land rulers • Examples:Chatal Huyuk, Jericho B. Historic time • Beginning of metal age • Settlements located along river systems • 1st: Euphrates, Tigris, Nile, etc. • Civilization emerges here • Mesopotamia • Translates to "land btwn. The two rivers" • Tigris & Euphrates • Egypt contained by deserts & marshes Mesopotamia open to invasion • Constant wars • • All walls around cities • Not so in Egypt • Ninevah, Babylon, Sumer, etc. 1. Views of religion, laws, literature C. Religions of Mesopotamia & ancient world • Polytheistic • Many gods • Same religions, but dif. b/c of geography • Flooding cycles different • Mesopotamia more pessimistic than Egypt • Anthropomorphic: look human 2 Wednesday, August 24, 2016 • 2 qualities of a god not human • Immortality • Physically powerful over world • Need to be worshipped for power • Volatile view of religion • Religious politics • Monarchies • Interconnected religion & government • Theocracy • Religious & physical power • Mesopotamia has priest King • Egypt: priest King & God • Son of Horus, son of Osiris, son of Ra Hierarchy • Ruler, priests (learned), military, merchants, nameless peasants (farmers, etc.) • • No concept-limited concept of afterlife • Memory • Memory stays alive but fades as generations go on • Spirit/soul • Soul dies with body • Underworld • Then soul disappears • Not permanent • 3 Friday, August 26, 2016 History 101 Mesopotamia & Egypt • Ziggurat: Mesopotamian temple • emphasis on religion School for priests • Read & write • • City grainery • Writing seen as gift from gods • Numerical system based on 60 • Larger abstract thinking • Focus on studying the heavens with the naked eye • Lunar calendar cycle • Used to judge flooding cycles • Cuneiform: Mesopotamian writing system • Business transactions & development of law • Begin to write down laws • Most famous is Hammurabi's Code • 1792-1750 BCE • Length of reign • Roughly 262 laws on Hammurabi's obelisk • 2 types of law • Civil • Marriage, contracts, business • Criminal • Crimes 1 Friday, August 26, 2016 Hammurabi's Code • • Death for false accusation • Death for stealing/receiving stolen goods from church • Death for kidnapping • Death for smuggling out slaves • Death for robbery • Thrown into fire for trying to help extinguish a fire and steals from owner of house burning • Laziness of dike keeping & flood, payment for grain destroyed • Woman wine seller: cheaper drinks by more grain given, thrown into river • Outlaw congregation at wine seller & owner doesn't arrest them: owner put to death • No proper contracts for wives: not a legal wife • Adultery: bound lovers & drowned • Forgiven man for forgiven wife • Affirmation before gods of woman of false accusation of adultery • Divorce for barrenness: return of marriage price & goes back to father • Neglect husband & home for gossip: into river • Wife murders husband for lover: impalement • Parents sleeping with children: father banished, mother & son impaled • House collapse by builder: death • Son dies in house collapse: builders son dies • Slaves • Racially same • Defeated enemies • Born into slavery 2 Friday, August 26, 2016 Debt slavery • • Sell into slavery to pay debts • Lex Talionis • Law in kind • Eye for an eye • Literature • Written stories • Epic of Gilgamesh • King of Uruk, 2900 BCE • Oral tradition for 700 years • 1900 BCE: written form recorded • Gods are displeased • Sent Enkidu • Epic battle: equal match • Become friends & go on more adventures • More godly rage • Gods kill Enkidu • Gilgamesh becomes pessimistic & contemplates immortality • Find immortal plant • Snake eats plan 3


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