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History 101 Week 2 Notes

by: Taylor Fortenberry

History 101 Week 2 Notes 101

Marketplace > University of Montevallo > History > 101 > History 101 Week 2 Notes
Taylor Fortenberry
University of Montevallo
GPA 2.88

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Egypt, Hebrews, India & China
History of World Civ I
Robert Barone
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Fortenberry on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at University of Montevallo taught by Robert Barone in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see History of World Civ I in History at University of Montevallo.


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Date Created: 09/04/16
Monday, August 29, 2016 History 101 Egypt • Gods zoomorphic • Polytheistic religion Animal heads & human bodies • Egyptian civilization just as old as Mesopotamian • • 3200 BCE • 2 discoveries • More refined tools • Metal • Writing • Hieroglyphics • Civilization develops along Nile • About 700 miles • Predictable, gentle, steady speed • Desert on either side • Cataracts further south • Rapids, tempestuous waters • Egypt protected by nature • Peaceful psyche of people • Stark contrasts between desert and fertile land • No fortifications around cities • Profitable country • Enough grain/food to feed the country AND export to neighboring countries • Egyptian kings seen as gods 1 Monday, August 29, 2016 • Direct descendants of gods • Osiris->Horus->first pharaoh->later pharaoh • Can't challenge gods, can challenge kings • Lower & Upper kingdom • Memphis & Thebes as capitals • One pharaoh unified Egypt • Long periods of peace & prosperity 3 periods of history • Old Kingdom • • Hieroglyphics developed • Middle Kingdom • New Kingdom • Writing on papyrus • Doesn't last • Carven stone • Lasts today • 36 dynasties rule in ancient Egyptian history • Incest leads to dynasty shifts • Old Kingdom: 2700-2200 BCE • Developments • Peace • Prosperity Pyramids built only during this time • 13 acre base on great pyramid • • Height of 461 feet 2 Monday, August 29, 2016 • About 2 million 2x4 foot stones in great pyramid • Close to or over 20 years to build • Religious structure built by peasants voluntarily & lovingly done for pharaoh • Criminals successful in stealing wealth • Death by impalement • Stone glowing gold covering • Smooth surface • Rich & prosperous to invest in pyramid building • Time consuming, laborious, expensive • Too expensive to keep doing • Old Kingdom dies • Over expenditure led to economic downfall • Agrarian crop failure Ruling dynasty becomes incompetent/sterile • Leads to internal civil war • • Middle Kingdom arises • Golden age of Egypt • Marked by temple building in place of pyramids • Not as tall, maybe as massive, more cost effective • Columns pre-date arch • Coming of Romans brings arch over columns 3 Wednesday, August 31, 2016 History 101 Egypt & Hebrews A. Egypt • Most important quality: stable as a society New kingdom period • Akhenaten • • Death ~1336 BCE • Creates religious revolution • Polytheistic to monotheistic religion based on god Aten • God of the sun • Bad reaction from other Egyptians and priest class • Creates dissension & unrest • Leads to assassination • Tutenkhamen takes religion back to polytheism • Son of Akhenaten • Speculation of murder, real COD unknown B. Hebrews • "Dead" civilizations in near east • No one today following ancient civilization traditions • Hebrew civilization only one to still follow ancient traditions • Used to be ignored for political history favoritism • Primary written historic work is the Torah (Old Testament) • Abraham ~1900 BCE • Seen as founder of Hebrew people • Abraham comes from city of Ur 1 Wednesday, August 31, 2016 • Herder • Migrates with extended family to "promised land" aka Palestine • Isaac (Israel) son • Jacob son of Isaac • 12 sons of Jacob • 12 tribes of Israel • Joseph ~1600 BCE • Youngest son of large family • Sold by brothers into slavery • Finds way to Egypt • Interprets dream of pharaoh • Freedom from slavery and elevated rank in royal household • Family reunites after they come to steal grain during famine End of Genesis is death of Joseph • Hebrew were herdsmen • • Migrate to Egypt • "Illegal aliens" • Grunt work/manual labor • New kingdom takes over ->Hebrews made slaves for supporting old pharaoh • Around 1300 BCE • Moses comes into history • Frees Hebrew slaves • Migrate back to "promised land" in Palestine • Next 300 years: Israel ruled by judges • 1000 BCE • Samuel 2 Wednesday, August 31, 2016 • Philistines wage war • Hebrews look to Samuel for a king • Saul its Hebrew king • Great military leader • Fight between King and judge for power • God decides to decide in favor of Samuel • Saul commits suicide • Samuel chooses David as next King • 1000-961 BCE • David & Goliath story • Hebrew vs. Philistines • David begins urbanizing Hebrews & takes Jerusalem from Philistines • Creates dissension over radical societal changes David succeeded by son: Solomon • 961-922 BCE • • Great temple in Jerusalem begun under solomon's rule • 700 wives, 300 concubines • Political alliances • Kingdom of Israel dies after solomon's death • Kingdom divided under solomon's son • Ezekiel, Jeremiah, Daniel, and Elijah • Judah & Israel • 200 years of Israel until 722 BCE • Assyrians conquer them • Judah holds on until 586 BCE • Babylonians conquer them 3 Wednesday, August 31, 2016 • Jewish from Hebrew • Hebrew history ends 4 Friday, September 2, 2016 History 101 Hebrews/China & India • Hebrews • 4 phases to religious development Pre Mosaic period ~300 years • Monalatry: "we have our one God, but others have their gods" • • Other gods related to nature • Hebrew God is above all • Created universe, but not physically present • Hebrew God has no name to discourage name power • Mosaic period • Mosaic revolution • Change to only Hebrew God (false idols of others) • YHWH "I am" • Laws to Hebrew people • 10 commandments most famous • 600 or more actual laws • Domination in near east • Kingdom of Israel & temple to their God • Eventually splits into Israel & Judah • Israel falls to Assyrians • Judah falls to Babylon • Prophetic Phase • Fall in with how God wants them to be • Ends in political dissolution & collapse of kingdom 1 Friday, September 2, 2016 • Messianic Phase • God will send a messiah to restore kingdoms and save Israel • One is Jesus of Nazareth China & India • India surrounded by Himalayas & Hindu Kush mountains • Rain in part, dry and arid in another part • 2,000 x 1,500 miles • River valleys in center, desert area, extensive coasts, grass & Savannah, woodlands, mountains --> geographically diverse Indus River valley is where civilization starts • • 2500 BCE • Beginning of civilization • Writing and metal • 2 main cites uncovered: • Mohenjo Daro & Harappa • Written language, but never deciphered or translated • Archaeologist left to decipher history of culture • Uncovered waste disposal, and irrigation/dikes for farming • Remains of cities don't have identified religious centers • Society lasted for ~1,000 years • Ended ~ 1500 • Invaded and replaced by Aryans from NW through Hindu Kush passes • Not known what became of original inhabitants Eventually Ganges river valley is taken as well • Aryans had written language: Sanskrit • • Could be translated 2 Friday, September 2, 2016 • Later adopted for Indian dialects • 1st writings were religious in nature • Vedic • Veda = wisdom • Books of wisdom • Hymns, rites, incantations for services • Brahmanism based on head God Brahma • Vishnu & Siva 2 other gods • Vishnu destroys and Siva creates • All created things have a portion of Brahma within them • Religion later named Hinduism • Polytheistic • Dominant religion in India today Reality in religion is to be one with chosen God(s) • Hindus want to be united with Brahma • • Idea of reincarnation • Caste system • Born into status or caste • Reincarnated into higher caste if working and religion done right • Wrong doing leads to reincarnation as lower caste • People were good to be one with Brahma again 3


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