Week 2, EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development
Week 2, EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development EDPS 251
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marshall DeFor on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EDPS 251 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Jarrett in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Adolescent Development for Education in Educational Psychology at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1 Week 2 Recap Hello, fellow students! Once again, it’s me, Marshall DeFor. This week, some of the things that we talked about included pubertal change, some basic neuroscience of the brain, and ways that we can implement different theories of adolescent development in the classroom. I wrote all of the following material, unless it is otherwise cited. Life gets crazy, so hopefully, this takes some of the pressure off of missing a day or missing a section of notes or reading! Table of Contents: Lectures Notes Monday Wednesday Friday Study Guide: Readings for the Week Adolescence by John W. Santrock, Ch. 2 all, Ch. 3 pages 8792 Lectures Please keep in mind that this is supplemental material only. I am a human, and I make mistakes. I cannot write down everything that is said or presented. These notes should provide you with a large amount of what was discussed in class, but may not include all of the material that you need to know. The main goal of these lecture notes are to help you remember points of each lecture that are not included in the slides provided by the instructor. Monday I. Information about the Group Presentation: A. You can do it a variety of ways: PowerPoint, prezi, debate, roundtable discussion, etc. B. 2 scholarly sources C. 1015 min. Long D. Must turn in a copy of all materials used at the time of the presentation. The abstract of a scholarly article is good enough; you don’t need the entire article. E. There will be peer reviewing to assess group work. F. Rubric Outline: Creativity (25%), Style (25%), Material (25%), Discussion (25%) G. 40 points total II. United States v. World View of Adolescence A. Social contexts: setting of development, social environment; some examples of differences in social contexts from area to area are war, religion, socioeconomic class, government oppression, and life expectancy B. It is necessary to shift our perspective from one that only focuses on “American” culture to a more global perspective. III. The development issue of Nature versus Nurture is generally seen as a 50/50 split, as are most development issues. Whether nature or nurture has more influence changes based on the aspect of personhood at which you are looking. IV. A large portion of the class discussion was an explanation of different theories of adolescent development. Notes from this section of Chapter 1 are included in my Week 1 notes for this class! I will copy those here. A. Psychoanalytic Theories EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1 1. psychoanalytic theories: theories that describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion; behavior is simply a surface characteristic, and the symbolic workings of the mind have to be analyzed to understand behavior; early experiences with parents are emphasized (Santrock, p. 25) 2. Erikson’s psychosocial theory: theory that includes eight stages of human development; each stage consists of a unique developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be faced (Santrock, p. 27) These eight crises and stages are: trust vs. mistrust in early infancy, autonomy vs. shame and doubt in late infancy, initiative vs. guilt in early childhood, industry vs. inferiority in middle and late childhood, identity vs. identity confusion in adolescence, intimacy vs. isolation in early adulthood, generativity vs. stagnation in middle adulthood, and integrity vs. despair in late adulthood. B. Cognitive Theories 1. Piaget’s theory: a theory stating that children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development (Santrock, p. 28) These four stages are the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage, and the formal operational stage. 2. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory: a sociocultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development 3. informationprocessing theory: a theory emphasizing that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it; central to this approach are the processes of memory and thinking C. Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories 1. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning: basically, rewards and punishment shape behavioral development 2. Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory: a theory that emphasizes reciprocal influences of behavior, environment, and personal/cognitive factors (Santrock, p. 30) D. Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory: a theory focusing on the influence of five environmental systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem (Santrock, p. 30) 1. microsystem: an adolescent’s setting, such as school, family, neighborhood, etc. 2. mesosystem: how microsystems interact with one another, such as bad relationships with parents leading to bad relationships with other adult figures 3. exosystem: how other people’s microsystems affect each other, such as a bad day at work for mom might mean an angry event at family dinner 4. macrosystem: culture of the adolescent, such as American culture 5. chronosystem: where the individual is in time and history E. eclectic theoretical orientation: an orientation that does not follow any one theoretical approach, but rather, selects from each theory whatever is considered the best in it (Santrock, p. 31) V. Some Basic Neuroscience: A. Neuron: the basic unit of the nervous system B. Axon: the branchlike part of a neuron that sends signals C. Dendrite: a smaller part of a neuron that receives messages D. Synapse: the space between neurons across which chemicalelectrical signals are sent E. Glial cells: cells that make up the myelin sheath around axons F. Myelin sheath: a group of cells that develops around axons; makes signals run smoothly G. The frontal lobe contains the prefrontal cortex, which controls planning. H. The corpus callosum is the part of the brain that connects the right and left hemispheres. I. The amygdala, a part of the brain that monitors emotion, develops during adolescence. The amygdala develops before the prefrontal cortex. Wednesday I. Both biological sexes have androgens and estrogens II. What did you notice during puberty? A. Voice change B. Breast development C. Acne EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1 D. Body hair growth III. Primary sex characteristics have to do with reproduction (i.e. genital development); secondary sex characteristics have to do with changes that happen that don’t relate to reproduction (i.e. facial hair) IV. Intervention is possible if “precocious puberty” happens: the body starts puberty before it can handle the changes. V. Possible Positive and Negative effects of going in early or late A. Early boys positive: 1. Perceived themselves more positively 2. Chosen as leader, popular B. Early boys negative: 1. Psychological link between image and athletics 2. Diminished sense of self later in life C. Early girls positive 1. Peer Resource for friend group, popularity D. Early girls negative: 1. Scary, going through it alone, body develops before brain 2. Body dissatisfaction 3. More likely to engage in risk behaviors (smoking, delinquency, early marriage) 4. Physical awareness can lead to body issues 5. Bullying; unwanted sexual attention; possible early sexual intercourse before psychologically ready E. Later negatives: 1. Missed athletic development 2. Socially isolating 3. Bullying because of size 4. Shier, meeker F. Later positive: 1. Develop strong sense of identity; less likely to engage in risk behaviors 2. Don’t have to deal with it as long 3. They’ve seen others do it, they know how it works 4. Girls: a) Better support system b) Develop at a better pace 5. Less uncomfortable to bring up VI. What can teachers/parents do? A. Give “the talk” to students/children! B. Find a balance between treating them the same and treating them differently. C. Teach pride in themselves. Positive recognition. D. Find stores that offer size ranges E. Engage with your children/students about body image in the media F. Denounce sexualization of females G. Selfworth in popularity or relationships Friday Evolution, Heredity, and the Environment: I. “Survival of the Fittest”: the idea that genetic traits that are more adapted to the environment lead to a higher chance of reproduction; eventually, the most adapted traits will be the majority throughout a population II. Psychoevolutionary Development A. Explanations using Psychoevolutionary Development: EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1 1. Humans have more extended childhoods compared to other mammals. This may be because we need more time for maturation as human society becomes more and more complex. 2. Humans have domainspecific mechanisms in our brain. These come from what could be considered as primitive means of survival. Examples of these domainspecific mechanisms are hunting animals or general athletic ability. B. Some terms to remember: 1. DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid; the building blocks of our genetic material 2. chromosomes: structures of genetic material in almost every living cell; most humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, totalling 46, but it is not necessary for humans to have exactly 46 chromosomes 3. genes: the chemical makeup of traits that is transferred to offspring 4. genotype: how genes are expressed chemically 5. phenotype: how the genes that one inherits express themselves; i.e., brown hair C. The environment can influence your heredity as well. For example, if you have a gene trait that makes you prone to aggression, but you grow up in a loving environment. That trait may never show itself. However, if you grow up in a stressful and negative environment, the same gene will cause you to be unusually aggressive towards others. III. Behavior Genetics A. Why is the idea of nichepicking important for educators in adolescent settings? 1. According to Erikson’s Theory, adolescence is the identity phase. 2. It’s important to let adolescents implement their niches to stabilize their identities. 3. It’s important to provide a wide array of options and opportunities for adolescents. 4. As an educator, one can alter environments to steer adolescents away from negative outcomes in this stage. IV. Cognition and Mental Processes A. Piaget was a psychologistphilosopher that used his kids for experiments. He believed that learners are builders of their environments, not just sponges that are passively filled. B. What does this mean for educators? 1. Encourage students to interact with the world around them. 2. Do not focus on memorizationbased methods. 3. Use handson activities in the classroom. C. Schemas 1. One example of a schema is a dentist’s office. When one thinks of a dentist’s office, one can clearly think of things that belong in a dentist’s office, such as pictures of teeth. It is easy to know what goes in this category and what does not. This category with known boundaries can be referred to as a schema. 2. When people experience new things, it leads to disequilibrium, which is when something does not fit into a person’s known schemas, causing confusion. 3. This leads into a process called equilibration. There are two types of equilibration processes: assimilation and accommodation. a) Assimilation is fitting something new into a known schema. Example: “A man is carrying a purse. I thought women carried purses. This is fine, though, because people carry bags, and that is a schema that I already have. I will fit this information under the ‘people carry bags’ schema.” b) Accommodation is modifying an old schema or creating a new schema. Example: “A man is carrying a purse. I thought women carried purses. Now I think men and women carry purses. I have changed my schema from ‘women carry purses’ to ‘men and women carry purses.’” 4. After equilibration, an individual is once again at equilibrium, in which all things are fit into schemas and there is no longer confusion over the new thing. EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1 one year later in boys, before what is generally considered the beginning of puberty (Santrock, p. 52) b. gonadarche: puberty phase involving the maturation of primary sexual characteristics (ovaries in females, testes in males) and secondary sexual characteristics (pubic hair, breast and genital development); this period follows adrenarche by about two years and is what most people think of puberty (Santrock, p. 52) c. menarche: a girl’s first menstrual period (Santrock, p. 52) d. spermarche: a boy’s first ejaculation of semen (Santrock, p. 52) iii. Weight and Body Fat: There seems to be a correlation behind heavier children and earlier pubertal onset. iv. Leptin and Kisspeptins: These are both chemicals. Leptin increases metabolism, and kisspeptins are tied to pubertal onset and change. v. Weight and Birth and in Infancy: The lower the birth weight, the earlier menarche in females and the smaller testicular volume in males. vi. Sociocultural and Environmental Factors: Higher development of an area, adoption, father absence, low socioeconomic status, family conflict, maternal harshness, child maltreatment, and early substance use all correlate to earlier pubertal onset. b. Growth Spurt: Females generally start growing around the age of 9, and they grow at a rate of 3.5 inches/year. Males generally start growing around the age of 11, and they grow at a rate of 4 inches/year. c. Sexual Maturation: i. Male genitalia generally develop between the ages of 10 and 17. ii. Female genitalia and breasts develop between 8 and 18 years of age. iii. precocious puberty: the very early onset and rapid progression of puberty (Santrock, p. 56); precocious puberty can be harmful to the individual and can be monitored and slowed with the help of medicine d. Secular Trends in Puberty i. secular trends: patterns of the onset and rapid progression over historical time, especially across generations (Santrock, p. 56) ii. The general secular trend across Norway, Finland, Sweden, the USA, and the UK shows that menarche is starting earlier and earlier in girls over time. e. Psychological Dimensions of Puberty i. Body Image 1. Gender Differences: Girls are much more bodyfocused during adolescence than boys, and girls have more negative views of themselves than boys. 2. Body Art: There is controversy over whether body art leads to risktaking behaviors or if it simply is a form of individuality and selfexpression. There is evidence that seems to support both claims. ii. Hormones and Behavior: It is believed that hormonal changes can be linked to depression in girls and risktaking behavior in boys. Of course, hormones cannot be the sole factor in either of these possibilities for girls or boys. iii. Early and Late Maturation: Girls who enter puberty earlier seem to have a lot more personal issues, such as drinking, smoking, and depression, than girls who enter at a normal or later time. Boys who enter puberty earlier seem to have more selfconfidence than their peers. f. Are Puberty’s Effects Exaggerated: Change is a pretty constant thing throughout an individual’s life, and highlighting the changes during the time of a major identity crises, such as adolescence, could cause more damage than encouragement to youth. B. Health a. Adolescence: A Critical Juncture in Health i. RiskTaking Behavior: The stereotype that adolescents like to take risks has some ground. Studies do show that there is an increase in risktaking behavior by many EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1 adolescents. This may be because the part of the brain that controls emotion, the amygdala, develops more quickly than the part of the brain that includes logical thinking, the prefrontal cortex. ii. Health Services: Many adolescents do not have strong ties to the healthcare opportunities that are available for them. This is due partly to a lack of specialization in adolescent health care and to apathy among adolescents regarding their overall personal health and wellbeing. iii. Leading Causes of Death: The three leading causes of death in adolescents are accidents, homicide, and suicide. Many of these accidents involve motor vehicles, and many people are pushing for stricter driving policies for adolescents to try to counteract this statistic. b. Emerging Adults’ Health: Emerging adults’ health is general much worse than adolescents because of habits that they develop, such as not eating regular meals. One longitudinal study showed that health at thirty years correlates to life satisfaction at seventy years. c. Nutrition: Many American adolescents have negative nutritional habits, such as eating an excess of fried foods or skipping breakfast. Parents are very influential when it comes to teen eating habits, by providing an example and by making healthy food available. Families who eat meals together also seem to have an impact on health and academics. When schools talk about nutrition in fourth and fifth grade, students generally eat more vegetable in sixth and seventh grade than students whose schools did not address nutrition. d. Exercise and Sports i. Exercise 1. Developmental Changes: Physical activity tends to decrease from childhood to adolescence. 2. Positive Benefits of Exercise in Adolescence: Regular exercise throughout adolescence can help predict future health habits in adulthood, regulate health, decrease chances of heart disease, create a more fluid connection between different regions of the brain, lower depression, and reduce symptoms of ADHD. ii. Factors of Adolescent Exercise 1. Families: Parents’ physical activity levels dramatically influence children’s physical activity levels. 2. Peers: The way that peers, specifically close friends, view physical activity as either negative or positive is directly linked to physical activity levels. 3. Schools: Students whose schools implement a physical activity program show healthier cardiovascular fitness over time than students whose school do not implement any kind of physical activity program. 4. ScreenBased Activity: The more screenbased activity that children participate in, the less likely they are to be physically active. iii. Sports: 1. Sports can cause positive and negative effects in adolescents. Positive effects include physical health and motivation to avoid risktaking behaviors. Negative effects include pressure to excel, injuries, and distractions from academics. 2. Coaches play a very important role in adolescents’ lives. Performancebased coaching produce very negative results to students’ selfesteems, while coaching based on striving to reach a selfdetermined level of success has very positive results with regard to student’s selfesteems. 3. female athlete triad: a combination of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis that may develop in female adolescents and college students (Santrock, p. 71) e. Sleep: EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1 i. Behavior Genetics 1. behavior genetics: the field that seeks to discover the influence of heredity and environment on individual differences in human traits and development (Santrock, p. 78) 2. Two main types of studies are used to study behavior genetics: a. twin study: a study in which the behavioral similarity of identical twins is compared with the behavioral similarity of fraternal twins (Santrock, p. 78) b. adoption study: a study in which investigators seek to discover whether the behavior and psychological characteristics of adopted children are more like their adoptive parents, who have provided a home environment, or more like those of their biological parents, who have contributed their heredity; another form of adoption study involves comparing adoptive and biological siblings (Santrock, p. 79) ii. HeredityEnvironment Correlations 1. passive genotypeenvironment correlations: correlations that occur because biological parents, who are genetically related to their child, provide a rearing environment for the child (Santrock, p. 79) 2. evocative genotypeenvironment correlations: correlations that occur because an adolescent’s genetically shaped characteristics elicit certain types of physical and social environments (Santrock, p. 80) 3. active (nichepicking) genotypeenvironment correlations: correlations that occur when children seek out environments that they find compatible and stimulating (Santrock, p. 80) 4. Critics of these correlations think that heredity gets too much credit if one thinks about development in these terms. iii. Shared and Nonshared Environmental Experiences 1. Behavior geneticists also use the difference between shared and nonshared environmental experiences to examine how differences in environment influence behavior. 2. shared environmental experiences: siblings’ common experiences such as their parent’s personalities and intellectual orientation, the family’s socioeconomic status, and the neighborhood in which they live (Santrock, p. 80) 3. nonshared environmental experiences: the adolescent’s own unique experiences, both within a family and outside the family, that are not shared by a sibling (Santrock, p. 80) 4. Scientists have found that behavior has little to do with these differences; basically, this means that siblings can have very different demeanors and behaviors even though they have very similar experiences. iv. The Epigenetic View 1. epigenetic view: belief that development is the result of an ongoing bidirectional interchange between heredity and environment (Santrock, p. 81) 2. On example of this is that some humans have a short version of the gene 5HTTLPR. This gene causes a much higher risk of depression, but only if the individual is often impacted by stress. Otherwise, this gene does not express this high risk. 3. gene x environment (G x E) interaction: the interaction of a specific measured variation in DNA and a specific measured aspect of the environment (Santrock, p. 81) EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1 a. This type of study will look at a gene aspect and an environmental aspect and note differences between the variables and the outcomes. b. For example, one G x E interaction study might compare two different gene traits (gene trait A and gene trait B) and whether you had supportive or nonsupportive parenting. The results would be organized and compared as follows: gene trait A + supportive parenting, gene trait B + supportive parenting, gene trait A + nonsupportive parenting, and gene trait B + nonsupportive parenting. v. Conclusions About HeredityEnvironment Interaction: Everything is pretty complicated when it comes to what aspects of who we are come from heredity or the environment. The most popular view is that, while some things can be traced directly to genetics, most things are too complicated to discern what percentage comes from heredity and what percentage comes from the environment. Chapter , Section 1: The Brain A. neuroconstructivist view: developmental perspective in which biological processes and environmental conditions influence the brain’s development; the brain has plasticity and is context dependent; and cognitive development is closely linked with brain development (Santrock, p.88) B. Neurons a. neurons: nerve cells, which are the nervous system’s basic units (Santrock, p. 88) b. An axon is the branchlike part of a neuron that sends messages; a dendrite is the part of a neuron that receives messages. c. myelination: the process by which the axon portion of the neuron becomes covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells, which increases the speed and efficiency of information processing in the nervous system (Santrock, p. 88) d. White matter refers to the part of the brain that is made up of myelinated axons. Grey matter refers to the other parts of the brain, like the cell bodies and dendrites. e. synapses: gaps between neurons, where connections between the axon and dendrite occur (Santrock, p. 88) f. When puberty starts, the levels of different chemicals in your brain called neurotransmitters begin to change. C. Brain Structure, Cognition, and Emotion a. corpus callosum: a large bundle of axon fibers that connect the brain’s left and right hemispheres (Santrock, p. 88) In adolescence, this part of the brain thickens due to myelination, allowing adolescents to process information more efficiently. Myelination also affects other parts of the brain to make information processing more efficient throughout the brain during adolescence. b. prefrontal cortex: the highest level of the brain’s frontal lobes that is involved in reasoning, decision making, and selfcontrol (Santrock, p. 88) In adolescence, this part of the brain continues to develop until 18 to 25 years of age. c. limbic system: a lower, subcortical system in the brain that is the seat of emotions and experience of rewards (Santrock, p. 88) In adolescence, this part of the brain develops much earlier than the prefrontal cortex, which could explain the rise in risktaking behaviors. d. amygdala: a portion of the brain’s limbic system that is the seat of emotions such as anger (Santrock, p. 88) e. One debate is whether A) these biological changes come before risktaking experiences, or B) risktaking experiencing triggers these biological changes. Scientists are still unsure of which comes first. D. Experience and Plasticity: EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1 a. Brain cells can be made in adolescence in the hippocampus (related to memory) and the olfactory bulb (related to smell.) It is unclear what these cells do, and they die after a few weeks. b. Brain injuries that happen earlier in life have a greater chance of being recovered from. c. The fact that the prefrontal cortex continues to develop throughout adolescence is an indicator that education is extremely beneficial to human development during this time period, as the prefrontal cortex deals with highlevel processing and rationale.
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