Biology 10 Week 2 Notes
Biology 10 Week 2 Notes Biol 10
California State University, Fresno
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Serena on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 10 at California State University, Fresno taught by Stephanie Coffman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Life Science in Biology at California State University, Fresno.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
Life Science Monday, August 29, 2016 5:00 PM Week's Topic: Scientific Thinking Important Points: Theories can never becomelaws Today's Topics: Theories can never be truly proven Hypotheses Hypotheses are narrow, Theories are broad Theories & Laws Hypothesis vs. Theories Evidence Scientific Ideas Can Change Science vs Religion Summary Hypotheses try to explain a narrow topic Theories are the best explanation available to explain a broad topic that is supported by all available evidence Laws describe broad aspects of the natural world Theories cannot prove or disprove any claims Theories are changeable and can be disproved, though are not often done so Topic #1: Hypothesis • Not just "an educated guess" • Has to provide an explanation • Always going to explain • Not an "if-then" statement(that’s a prediction) • Used to formulate a prediction • Hypothesis explains what is happening, prediction makes a guess about what will happen • Can be very narrow Topic #2: Theories and Laws • Going to be very broad • Big picture, big idea • Law: Describes the natural world ○ An apple falls down everytime • Theory: Explains why or how something happened ○ The apple fell because of gravity • Theories do not becomelaws with more evidence Example: Gravity • Law: "Objects fall to the ground when dropped" • Theory: "The object fell to the ground because larger objects attract smaller objects" Topic #3: Hypothesis vs Theory • Hypothesis is very narrow • Theory is very broad • Theory is the best explanation we have based on existing evidence Example: Cell Theory Example: Cell Theory • Applies to every living thing made of cells Sub-Topic #1: Theories • Can change over time • Are the goals of science • Supported by evidence By all the available evidence, not just some of it Observations,Experiments, etc • Contradicting evidence may disprove a theory Topic #4: Evidence • Observations • Experiments ○ Not required (like in Astronomy) ○ Some things cannot be experimentedon Galaxies Pregnant Women Religion Sub-Topic #1: Objective vs Subjective Experiments ○ Objective Not influenced by preconceivedideas or emotionsor fame and fortune ○ Subjective Based on opinion Data needs to be interpreted Sub-Topic #2: Proof ○ Proof is not possible ○ Evidence supports a theory but cannot ever prove it ○ It is not possible to test all possibilities ○ Scientists collect as much data as possible that will support or reject a claim Anecdote: Advertisements • Be wary of ads that claim proof of scientific results! • Check the evidence! • Proof is not possible • There is no proof that Cheerios reduces cholesterol,though there may be evidence to support this claim Topic #5: Scientific Ideas can change • Ideas are tentative • Built into science that science can change • Usually in the form of small revisions to a theory • Completeabandonment of a theory requires strong evidence and is uncommon • Theories can go unchanged for an indefinite period of time Topic #6: Science vs. Other ways to explain the world Sub-Topic #1: Science • Limited to the natural world • Tentative • Requires Evidence • Based on logic • Subject to revision • Can be disproved • Can be disproved Sub-Topic #2: Religion • Not limited to the natural world • Requires faith, not empirical evidence • Based on authoritative text • Unchanging Life Science Wednesday, August 31, 2016 5:00 PM Week's Topic: Scientific Thinking Important Points: Double- Blind Experiment Today's Topics: Experiments should be controlled, double-blind and random Types of Evidence Cause & Effect - not linked directly Scientific Method Viruses need host cells to replicate Antibiotics only work on bacteria Cause and Effect Viruses Summary 3 Types of "Evidence" Experiments should only manipulate one variable, be placebo-controlled, double- blind, random, and have a large enough sample size to account for variation Cause and effect are not always directly linked Antibiotics interrupt the cell's normal function so using them on our own bacteria cells is risking the good ones Topic #1: Types of 'Evidence' Type #1: Anecdotal Evidence • What your friends and family say Type #2: Appeal to Authority • What important people say, such as doctors Example: Vitamin C cures the cold ○ Linus Pauling ○ Hypothesized that Vitamin C cures the cold ○ Used Inductive Reasoning Arguing from what we already know Starting with specific observations to discover a general principle Type #3: Argue with Numbers • What loads of people say Type #4: Lie Vocabulary: Experiment • a set of actions or observations designed to test a hypothesis Double-Blind Experiment • researcher & subject are both unaware if the experimental drug is a placebo or not Placebo • An inactive substance used as an experimental control • Medically ineffectual treatment, ie. a sugar pill Topic #2: Scientific Method Sub-Topic #1: Hypothesis • Are usually based on observations • Must be testable • Must be based on natural phenomena • Must be based on natural phenomena Sub-Topic #2: Experiment • Should manipulate only 1 variable • Should be controlled, double-blind & random • Need enough subjects to account for variation Sub-Topic #3: Conclusions • Must not mistake correlation for causation • Always remain open to falsification Topic #3: Cause & Effect • Not necessarily linked directly Example: Cold Remedies • Sleeping more while having a cold does not cause you to get over a cold, but it may boost your immune system • Exercising while sick, same thing • Correlative studies show that many factors can influence your immune system Sub-Topic #1: Correlation is not Causation!! • More storks in Germany correlated with more babies born in Germany does not mean storks deliver babies • Ice cream sales and shark bites increasing do not cause each other, the heat causes both effects Topic #4: Viruses • Tricks your cells into letting them in • Needs to get in to make more of itself • Uses your cells to replicate itself • Your body knows about it • Body releases compounds to fight virus • Warns the other cells • Causes sickness Sub-Topic #1: Antibiotics • Disrupt the normal cell functions Building of cell walls Protein synthesis Metabolic processes • Only work on bacteria • Prokaryotic Cells vs Eukaryotic Cells: Presence of cell walls Different size of ribosomes Details of metabolism • The goal of antibiotic therapy is to choose or design drugs that target the differences (between prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells) in host and pathogen cells