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Geography Week 2B

by: Annah Shrader

Geography Week 2B GEOG 1030-01

Annah Shrader
GPA 3.705

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These notes are over European Regions. They are categorized, summarized and listed.
World Geography
Robert C. Hoff
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annah Shrader on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1030-01 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Robert C. Hoff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see World Geography in History at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.


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Date Created: 09/04/16
Geography Lecture Week 2 Chapter 1B Overview: This covers section B of chapter 1 in the textbook. It was covered a little at the end of class, but most of the information will be coming from the book rather than the professor. I will be covering the regions and a short summary of each state within them. ******= Teacher explicitly mentioned the term would be on an exam. The 5 European Regions:  The Mainland Core (Western Europe): This is formed by 8 states (countries) and 1 microstate (not a separate country but identifies as separated off from the nation). All of the states are located within the European Realm’s core. o Germany: Known for European dominance. It was not unified until in 1871 (it is a new born country compared to most). Maintains Europe’s largest economy and largest population. This country was separated into the East and West until 1990 due to poor economical status after the World Wars and Soviet influence. West Germany prospered under the Marshall Plan and was extremely successful at rebuilding the nation and rekindling the economy. The East being under Communist rule for so long was and is not as successful as the West. Since reunification in 1990, the West still holds the weight for all of Germany. Populations are less in the East, and output is substantially lower as well as GDP (income per person). Immigrants make up 12% of the entire German population, and are generally poorer and less educated. o France: A rival of Germany, and less industrial in comparison, although it is still one of the most productive economies in Europe. The thriving French economy arises from high-tech industry and agricultural production that is hardly matched. France is larger than Germany, and much older, but has a smaller population. France has one dominant city: Paris. Germany has many dominant cities spread out across the state. Paris is France’s ***primate city***, meaning its leading city that stands out among the rest. This is usually a states capital. Paris is particularly interesting due to the control/power it maintained from one location for centuries. Germany cannot boast of long term rule like France can. French population is aging similarly to the USA where the younger tax payers will not be able to afford the numerous amount of people who can retire. o Benelux (The Lower Countries):  Belgium: Younger than the Netherlands, born in 1830. This is the location of the headquarters of the European Union in the cities capital of Brussels. It is separated into two major cultural parts, one where people speak French, and the other where they speak Flemish. This cultural barrier creates centrifugal forces within the state. Even so, Belgium has a prosperous economy and is heavily populated with over 10 million people.  The Netherlands: This area of the world is largely below sea level which has led the state to create systems of protecting the inhabitants from floods, but also by pushing water out to expand territory. This is a highly urbanized country, so much that two cities grown so much they have joined together (this is called conurbation). It is home to Europe’s largest and one of the busiest ports. Economy focuses on services and finances and trade, and not so much farming and manufacturing. Population is over 16 million.  Luxemburg: A tiny country with 500,000 people in it. It strongly supports the EU, as well as contributes to it exponentially. This is the land of banks and stocks. The inhabitants have the highest average income in the world. o Czech Republic: This country used to be known as Czechoslovakia, but has separated from Slovakia. Prague is the primate city. This country is surrounded by mountains. It has a population of 10.5 million people and it is a successful industrial center. They are leaders in technology and engineering. Successful place, and gaining speed at becoming even more so. o Switzerland: This is a landlocked country, completely surrounded by other countries, which makes it impressive that it has been so prosperous. It is covered by the Alps Mountains. The people in this country speak a little bit of everything depending on the region. They use the mountains to their advantage by using the water to power their industry. They are powerful in agriculture, banking, and finances, and have proven to be very stable on their own. They have chosen not to join the EU. o Austria: This is also a landlocked country. Covered in the Alps Mountains. Austria is a fairly recent EU member, but has an extremely skeptical population. Vienna is the largest city as well as the primate city. One language is used in this country. It has had an unstable past compared to Switzerland. Austria has less trade than Switzerland, but is much larger with a larger population. It is rich in raw materials.  The British Isles: This formed by two states. It is located in the core area except for a sliver of western Ireland. It made up of two big islands. o Republic of Ireland: A smaller island than the UK. The Republic of Ireland is not actually the entire island, because a portion of North Ireland belongs to the UK. This division of territory is due to the Republic being Catholic, and the North being English protected Protestants. It is a member of the EU, and uses the euro unlike the UK. The potato is the main crop, even though there was a famine of it that caused a lot of death. It gained independence from the UK in 1921. Initially, Ireland was not doing too well economically, but at the end of the twentieth century things picked up and many Irish people traveled back home due to the increase in industrial jobs available. As of the early 2000s it was growing at an increased rate and doing wonderfully until all hell broke loose and it went bankrupt in 2010. The EU bailed them out and they are still in a recovery period from that hard hit. Most of Ireland is located in the core, but the western coasts are not. o United Kingdom: Made up of four parts. It is only 21 miles from mainland Europe and is about the size of our state Oregon. There are roughly 62 million people here. It is located in the core. Historically, Great Britain was a major world influence involved in mercantilism and the industrial revolution. It is a member of the EU, but it refuses to transition to the euro currency.  England: The primate city is London, and it is one of the world’s most leading cities. Birth of the Industrial Revolution and development of it as well. It is a powerful country, often times the UK is referred to as England.  Wales: A lot of this population still speaks Welsh. There are coal reserves here which led to its participation in the Industrial Revolution, as well. 3 million inhabitants. It is the smallest sub region on the United Kingdom Island. Wealth, power, and population have declined, but this small place remains intact.  Scotland: Most of the population of 5.3 million reside in the southern area of Scotland near its capital Edenborough. It is twice as large as the Netherlands, but the population is much sparser. Southern Scotland contains iron and coal reserves which aided in participation in the Industrial Revolution. The majority of the Scottish population seek independence from the United Kingdom, and wish to play a more prominent role in the EU.  Northern Ireland: There are only 1.8 million people in this territory, and 46% of the population are Catholic and the Republic of Ireland sympathizers, even though the region exists in the UK because of Protestants. There is actually a wall built to separate Catholics from Protestants in Belfast. Many people have died in this war of denomination. It is a messy situation that is no closer to a solution now than it was at separation.  The Discontinuous South: Made up of 13 states. o Italy: The Northern section is located in the core area and is industrialized and urbanized. Italy is the most populous and economically advanced of the discontinuous south with 60 million people. The southern section is low income and stagnant. Rome is the primate city and capital, but is being humbled by Milan where the lead is taken in manufacturing and population, and has a high average income. o Spain: Spain has a population of 47 million. It a part of the EU and has benefited from the union. The Northern section of the country is located in the Core with major cities of Barcelona and Madrid, Barcelona being the leading industrial area. Relations between the different regions are tense and have caused secessionist attitudes and Civil Wars. North Spain is much more prosperous than the south. This is partly due to poorer soils and drought in the south. The economy in Spain is following suit with Greece and Portugal. Immigration is causing a problem of more people seeking jobs and it is unknown whether the economy will collapse or hold out in the future. o Portugal: This country is lucky to be involved in the EU because the poorer regions win out. It has a population of 10.7 million and was bailed out in 2011 when the economy collapsed. It is still in rough shape and is far from being a leading power. o Malta: Extremely tiny place with 5 islands, of which 3 are inhabited. It is a ministate. It has an incredible tourist industry. It is part of the EU. A very small island with 400,000 people on it. o Greece: This is where European civilization began. It is surrounded by foreign countries and territories along with the Aegean Sea and Mediterranean. It has 11.3 million people, and is part of the EU. Greece has had its ups and downs financially, but was bailed out by the EU in 2010. The primate city is Athens. o Cyprus: This is an island that is located right underneath Turkey. The southern Greek portion is a part of the EU. It has had an extremely complicated past going back and forth between Greek and Turkish rule. It is vaguely split into northern turkey and southern Greek territories. The separation between inhabitants has major centrifugal forces. This is a good example of how the EU can cause issues instead of solutions. o The Balkans: the land here is known as a shatter belt. This means that boundaries are persistently changing. It has become known as Balkanization. This just means that control is constantly shifted around. There is little stability. This is due to communist collapse and the dispelling of Yugoslavia. Many of the states considered themselves to be communist and the wars took its tole.  Serbia: There are 7.2 million people here. This is largest country of the Balkans. Two of the current states in the Balkans used to be a part of Serbia in 2006 but have broken off since. In northern Serbia there is a minority of 400,000 Hungarians living and consider themselves to be a part of the EU. This is a complicated state due to the cultural variety located all around. The majority here are known as the Serbs. Serbia is not a part of the EU  Croatia: There are 4.4 million people residing here. They are not a part of the EU, but could be so in the near future. The people are known as Croats and have tense relationships with Serbs and Muslims.  Bosnia: There are 3.8 million people living here. It is a melting pot for the surrounding regions. 50% of the people are called Bosniaks (Muslims). The Croats, Serbs and Muslims do not at all get along. There were attempts at ethnic cleansing and 250,000 died for that messed up cause.  Macedonia: This is one of Europe’s poorest counties. It has 2 million people and is in constant conflict with the people residing there. It is made up of Muslims, Turks, Serbs, Slavs, and Albanians etc.  Montenegro: There are 630,000 people here. If broke off from Serbia in 2006. It is relatively new and has assets in farming, Russians aid, and a black market.  Kosovo: Broke from Serbia in 2008. It has 2 million people, most of them Muslim or Albanian. There is a minority of Serbians.  Albania: It is dominantly Muslim with 3.2 million people. It is one of the poorest, and has one of Europe's higher population increases. There is a cultural divide between north and south.  Discontinuous North: Made up of 8 states. This is compared to the south not by location, but by the fact that both regions were cut off from mainland Europe in cultural, linguistic, and environmental ways. There is the Baltic Sea that separates the northern countries from the mainland Europe. Most of the territory is in the periphery and there are much fewer people living here. o Sweden: population of 9.4 million. Most people live in the south. It is the north's most populous and largest territory. A lot of industry goes on south, such as making cars, electronics, glass etc. There is a large iron ore reserve. People speak Swedish. Most of this country is a part of the periphery, but the southern part is in the core. Energy poor. Sweden is a part of the EU. o Norway: People here discovered oil and natural gas in the North Sea of their territory. This has definitely aided the Norwegian economy. It also specializes in the fish industry. The people of Norway on average make the most in the world. There are 4.9 million people living here. The unemployment rate is very low here, too. They are not a part of the EU. They value independence. o Denmark: Population of 5.5 million in a very small country. It is an important transfer zone for trade. Greenland depends on Demark. The people of Denmark are Danish. It is a part of the EU. o Finland: The population is 5.4 million and like Sweden, the population is concentrated in the south. They make wood products, ships, and textiles. They also dabble in telecommunication product. They are not Scandinavian people, rather they relate to the Estonians. o Estonia: The population is 1.3 million and a fourth of them are Russian. It is a part of the EU and has gotten on its feet much faster than some of the other countries previously under Soviet control. Economically prosperous. Skype was introduced here. But it is still a part of the periphery. o Latvia: 2.2 million population. Over a fourth are Russian. They are not as advanced as the other states of the north. Their economy was in a dire state after the Soviet collapse, most of all their trade was with the Soviets. They are focusing on improving the economy. o Lithuania: There are 3.3 million people living here. There are serious tensions with Russia, and they were not left with much prime coastline territory by Russia. Even so, they are rapidly improving their economy and are a part of the EU. o Iceland: This is the land of the volcanos. It is an island at the top of the world. There are only 340,000 people living here. The people mostly live in cities. Their economy has undergone a recent collapse and they are fighting to get back to where they were. Lots of seafood to eat.  The Eastern Periphery: This territory was effected terribly by the World Wars and the Cold War. It was the land in between all the dirty work. The Soviets had control until the collapse, and now the countries are trying to pick back up their old roots. This is made up of 10 states. o Poland: The largest of the group. It has 38.3 million people. It is a part of the EU, and is trying to focus on Europe rather than Russia. The economy is improving as well as the government. The EU has helped this country a lot. A portion of the western side of Poland is located in the core. o Slovakia: There are 5.4 million people here. There is a Hungarian minority. They were for Russia and split with the Czech Republic. Before the EU, the country seemed to be corrupt and unstable, but since joining it has gotten its act together and is looking towards a bright future. o Hungary: There are 9.9 million people living here. They are a part of the EU. The people of Hungary live in many other places than their country. Hopefully the EU can help improve the economy of the fallen country. o Slovenia: There are 2.1 million people here. It is a part of the EU. This is the brightest star out of the southern and eastern states. Its success story paved the way for the other countries to receive help from the EU. o Romania: This is a corrupt place. The economy is in bad shape as well as the leadership. There are 21.4 million people here. Unemployment is high and the resources are used up. It is an important location, but as far as content, it needs major work. o Bulgaria: There are 7.5 million people living here. The location is a tense one, bordering clashing rivals. People are leaving and causing immigration problems in the core. It is a part of the EU. o Ukraine: 45.5 million people live in this massive state. The location is a bridge between Europe and Russia, as well as an important coastline. This country, like the others, was also heavily affected by the Cold War. The west is Roman Catholic and the East is Russian Orthodox. This is an important country due to linkage and location of oil lines. There is a split between the European west and Russian east. There might be interest in joining the EU. o Moldova: The poorest country of Europe. There are 4.1 million people with a Romanian majority. The economy is failing, crime and unemployment are on the rise, and Russia is taking control. o Belarus: There are 9.5 million people here and they are mostly Russian. It has never picked up after the Cold War. It is still led by communism/ a dictator. The economy is awful and there is little hope for improvement. They are not a part of the EU. o Turkey: There are 75 million people here. It is part way in Europe and part way in Asia, and divides control accordingly. It is a Muslim nation. It controls its bordering seas heavily. It wants to be a part of the EU, but is on hold due to not meeting civil conditions.


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