BIO notes 3 Molecules of life
BIO notes 3 Molecules of life BIO 1102
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Beals on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 1102 at University of Connecticut taught by A. Fry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Biology in Biology at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
+ Water molecules split into ions of Hydrogen (H ) and Hydroxide (OH). What is the pH scale? A mesure of how many free H ions there are in a solution. + What is neutral pH? 7.0 H =OH The greater the H concentration the l ower the pH, the solution is more a cidic (pH<7) + The lower the H concentration the higher the pH, and the solution is more basic (pH>7) What pH value are most of the fluids in your body? Slightly basic, between 7.3 and 7.5. + Acid: molecule that gives away hydrogen ions (H protons). Hypoventilation: Breathing too shallow, CO levels increase, blood becomes acidic. 2 Respiratory Acidosis: Blood too acidic can cause coma and death. Acid test: Nitric acid can dissolve many metals, except gold. Often used to determine the realness of gold metals. Hydrofluoric acid: Can cause delayed deadly reaction. Absorbed in skin without burning and can prevent nervous system from normal function. + Bases: molecules that accept free hydrogen ions (H ) Ex. If your stomach is too acidic take a base like tums CaCO +2H > H O + CO +Ca 3 2 2 Hyperventilation: Breathing too rapidly, CO levels dr2, blood turns basic. Tetany: Low CO causes calcium problems. Muscles remain contracted, can cause death. 2 Tetanus: (Lockjaw) has same symptoms but is caused by bacteria. How do acids and bases burn you: they break down the molecules in the cell membrane, releasing energy and heat. Cells fall apart and liquify. + Salts: Molecules that release ions other than H when dissolved in water. Why is sea salt bigger than table salt? It has more salts in it (NaCl, KCl, MgCl, CaCl) Why is carbon an important biological element? Carbon can form 4 chemical bonds to get 4 electrons to finish its outer shell. Functional group: Single atoms or molecules covalently bonded to the carbon atom. What is an alcohol? A hydroxyl group (OH that is attached to saturated carbons) Ethanol (drinking alcohol): CH CH OH 3 2 What is an organic molecule? A molecule that contains carbon and at least one hydrogen atom Carbohydrates: sugars ( or saccharides) are polar, hydrophilic, and most common Simple sugars: also called Monosaccharides (one sugar molecule) Ex: Glucose C H O 6 12 6 prefered fuel for the brain and red blood cells. Short Chain sugars: Also called disaccharides or oligosaccharides. Ex: sucrose (table sugar), milk sugar = Glucose + Galactose What percentage of humans cannot digest milk sugar (lactose) after infancy? About 65% In what regions of the world did lactose tolerance first evolve? North central Europe and Eastern Africa Long chain sugars: Also called complex carbohydrates. Cellulose: Makes plant walls indigestible Starch: How plants store the glucose they create Glycogen: How animals store glucose they eat Chitin: Exoskeletons of insects (arthropods) How are they similar and different? All are glucose chains, but differ in how the chains are linked together. Lipids: Greasy and oily: nonpolar and hydrophobic Animal fats are solid at room temperature. Plant fats are liquid at room temperature. Fatty acids: Some Omega3 and Omega6 are required in the diet because the human body cannot make them. Saturated fatty acid: Carbons are all joined by single bonds and are saturated with hydrogen atoms. Unsaturated fatty acid: There are double bonds between some of the carbons. Triglycerides: Most common lipids in the body, richest source of energy. Where do vegetables store triglycerides? Inside fat cells Why do we store fat not sugar? Because fats have twice as much energy as sugars. Phospholipids: A main component of plant and animal cell membranes. Waxes: All repel water Cholesterols: Can be molded into many important biological molecules. How do we make vitamin D naturally? In our skin, sunlight (uvb rays) converts one kind of cholesterol into vitamin D. Nucleotides: Have one sugar, at least one phosphate group, and one nitrogen containing base. Ex: ATP, DNA and RNA Proteins: Are made from amino acids Amino acids: 20 different kinds used as the building blocks of proteins Ex: The enzyme lysozyme is found in tears, sweat, and saliva, and kills some bacteria.
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