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Week 2 - Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I: Lecture Notes

by: Audrey Hernandez

Week 2 - Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I: Lecture Notes PHCL 2600

Marketplace > University of Toledo > Biology > PHCL 2600 > Week 2 Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I Lecture Notes
Audrey Hernandez
GPA 3.6

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About this Document

Notes cover more cell parts and the basics of the different transports of the cell as discussed in week 2 of lectures.
Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology
Dr. Frederick Williams
Class Notes
Biology, anatomy, Physiology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Audrey Hernandez on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHCL 2600 at University of Toledo taught by Dr. Frederick Williams in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology in Biology at University of Toledo.


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Date Created: 09/04/16
Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I  Dr. Frederick E. Williams Week 2 Lecture Notes     Cell Parts Continued    ❖ Cytoskeleton  ➢ Made of…  ■ Microtubules  ● Dynamic structures that are always disassembling and reforming   ● Provide the “highways” that organelles travel along in the cell  ◆ Kinesin and dynein move them up/down these highways  ● Help form cilia and flagella  ● Taxol is an anticancer drug that will prevent  reforming/disassembly   ◆ Organelle traffic then stops  ◆ Results with death of the cell  ■ Microfilaments  ● Gives support at cell­cell junctions  ● Made of actin  ■ Intermediate filaments  ● Provides strength to cell­cell junctions  ● Found in most cells  ● Links cytoskeletal parts together and attaches at membranes  forming a microtrabecular lattice  ◆ Starts from outer and heads inner   ❖ Cell membrane  ➢ Is fluid and capable of “wave like” movement  ➢ Semipermeable  ➢ Important for drugs  ➢ Made of…  ■ Lipids  ● Phospholipids  ◆ Amphipathic  ◆ One polar phosphate head and two nonpolar fatty acid tails  ◆ Tend to form a bilayer with heads on outside/inside with  tails in between  ➢ Due to like­like interactions  ● Steroids  ◆ Cholesterol  ➢ Rigid due to molecular structure  ➢ The more there are, the more rigid the membrane  Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I  Dr. Frederick E. Williams Week 2 Lecture Notes   ● Triglycerides  ■ Membrane proteins   ● Intrinsic vs Extrinsic  ◆ Intrinsic  ➢ Part of the membrane   ➢ Amphiphilic amino acids tend to be inserted  ◆ Extrinsic   ➢ Loosely part of membrane (can detach from  membrane)  ➢ Tends to be on the ICF side attached to  phospholipids or transmembrane proteins   ● Types…  ◆ Structural  ➢ Cellular backbones  ◆ Pumps vs Channels  ➢ Pumps  ■ Actively transports   ➢ Channels  ■ Passively transports  ■ Gates ion flow  ◆ Carriers vs Receptors   ➢ Carriers  ■ Binds molecules in either IFC or EFC and  transports into cell  ➢ Receptors  ■ Binds molecules and then triggers related  cell activity  ■ Can often be glycoproteins or lipoproteins  ◆ Makers  ➢ Identifies cells  ◆ Enzymes  ➢ Catalyze reactions by lowering activation energy  ➢ Are not altered in anyway or used up by the reaction  ➢ Types  ■ Cofactors  ● Ions that need to be present for  activity  ● Inorganic and non­protein  ■ Coenzymes  Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I  Dr. Frederick E. Williams Week 2 Lecture Notes   ● Necessary for enzyme  ● Organic but non­protein  ● Come from vitamins   ● Examples are NAD and FAD  ➢ Types of membrane transport  ■ Active  ● Occurs against concentration gradient  ● Uses energy to accomplish  ◆ Hydrolysis of ATP  +​ +​ ● Good example are Na​  / K​  pumps  ● Secondary active transport  ◆ Is not active transport itself  ➢ Takes advantage of the active energy   ➢ Energy needed is generated by other molecules  movement so no ATP is directly required  ■ Passive  ● Two kinds  ◆ Chemical gating  ➢ Chemical binds to protein causing it to change its  shape to allow  flow  ◆ Voltage gating  ➢ Change in charge around membrane causes protein  to change shape to allow flow  ● Osmosis  ◆ Diffusion of water  ➢ Can only occur if membrane is relatively  impermeable to solute  ◆ Water flows from low solute concentration to high solute  concentrations  ◆ Osmolality   ➢ Osmolality = moles of total solute / 1 L water  ➢ All molecules contribute to total solute  concentration for osmolality   ■ Example: 1 mol NaCl dissolved means 2  mol total solute as NaCl dissociates into two  charges ions  ◆ Types of solutions  ➢ Isotonic  ■ ICF and ECF are relatively equal  Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I  Dr. Frederick E. Williams Week 2 Lecture Notes   ■ Nothing happens to cell at equilibrium  ➢ Hypotonic  ■ ECF has lower solute concentration than  ICF  ■ Water moves into cell, causing cell to lyse  or explode  ➢ Hypertonic  ■ ICF has lower solute concentration than  ECF  ■ Water moves out of cell, causing cell to  crenate or shrivel  ● Mainly by diffusion  ◆ Contributing factors to diffusion  ➢ Chemical gradient  ■ When there are areas of higher and lower  solute concentration  ➢ Electrical gradient   ■ When there are areas of positive and  negative charge difference  ➢ Electrochemical gradient   ■ Electrical and chemical gradients combined  together  ➢ Solute permeable membrane   ➢ Fick’s Law  ■ J = ­ DA * (dc/dx)  ■ Flux = J  ■ Diffusion coefficient = D  ■ Area of diffusion = A  ■ Driving concentration gradient = dc/dx  ■ Permeability coefficient = P  ■ Concentrations of either side of membrane =  C​1 ​C2  ■ Adapted Fick’s Law  ● J = ­ PA[C​ ­ C​ ]  1 ​ 2​ ➢ Overton’s Law  ■ Nonpolar and small molecules will have an  easier time diffusing through the membrane  ■ Polar large molecules will have a harder  time diffusing through the membrane   Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I  Dr. Frederick E. Williams Week 2 Lecture Notes   ➢ Types of cellular metabolism  ■ Metabolism  ● Overall term for chemical reactions in the cell  ● Catabolism  ◆ Breaks down molecules  ◆ Creates energy   ● Anabolism  ◆ Creates molecules  ◆ Uses energy    Protein synthesis     ❖ Code from DNA → transcription → RNA → translation → Protein   ➢ Nucleotides made up of base, sugar, and phosphate group  ■ DNA base pairs ­ A­T and G­C  ● Double helix   ■ RNA base pairs ­ A­U and G­C  ● Single chain  ➢ Triplet code from three nucleotides code for different amino acids  ➢ Promoter starts transcription process  ■ Located at the 5’ on a gene  ➢ Terminator ends transcription process  ■ Located at the 3’ on a gene   ➢ RNA undergoes editing process  ■ Introns are filler code that do not really code for anything  ● Are spliced out  ■ Exons code for different amino acids and are left in the code strand 


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