Biology 100 Week 2 notes and examples
Biology 100 Week 2 notes and examples 100
University of Montevallo
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Fortenberry on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 100 at University of Montevallo taught by Martin Klinger in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at University of Montevallo.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
Biology 100 Molecules of Life (continued) 8/30/16 Proteins continued o 2 amino acids linked together through a “peptide bond” o 2 amino acids = dipeptide o 3 amino acids = tripeptide o Many amino acids = polypeptide Proteins are polypeptides o How many dipeptides 20 x 20 = 400 possibilities o How many tripeptides 20 x 20x 20 = 8000 possibilities o Many possible sequences of amino acids Example: small protein insulin 50 amino acids Example: hemoglobin Over 600 amino acids o The order of amino acids (those “R” groups) in polypeptide chain gives protein(s) different properties Lipids (fats) o Important for: energy, structure of cell membranes, hormones, help store heat o 2 main types of lipids True fats Contain fatty acids Steroids Do not contain fatty acids o True fats: Fatty acid: a long carbon chain w/ an acid group at the end Fatty acid drawing Most fatty acids in the body most are between 1220 carbons long If all –cc bonds in a fatty acid are single, then that fatty acid is saturated Some acids have some –cc=c double bonds If there is one or more double bond, it is unsaturated Difference: Sat. fats: solid at room temperature (Crisco) Unsat. Fats: mostly liquid at room temp (vegetable oils, olive oil, etc.) o Special kinds of fats: Monoglyceride A molecule of glycerol and 1 fatty acid o Aka glycerin (monoglyceride example) o Could be saturated or unsaturated Diglyceride Glycerol molecule with 2 fatty acids o Diglyceride example 1 Biology 100 Molecules of Life (continued) 8/30/16 Triglyceride Glycerol and 3 fatty acids o Triglyceride example Phospholipids o Very important part of cell membranes Contains: diglyceride, phosphate group, polar head group Example: lecithin (emulsifier) Polar head group: 67 main kinds o Fatty acids don’t like water away from 2 O and would rather be in oils o Polar head group likes water, likes to be near water Steroids o 4 carbon rings 3 hexagons & one pentagon Add different atoms to main structure, get very different properties Examples: cholesterol, testosterone, progesterone, estrogen Nucleic Acids (DNA, RNA): Polymers (long chains) of nucleotides Nucleotides o 5 carbon sugar RNA (ribose) and DNA (deoxyribose) o Phosphate group o Nitrogen containing base RNA: A, C, G, U DNA: A, C, G, T o DNA: double stranded 2 polymers that are linked to each other through H bonds o In DNA, C always matches to G, and A always matches with T o RNA: usually single stranded (except in certain viruses) DNA RNA Deoxyribose Ribose A, C, G, T A, C,G, U Double stranded Single stranded (usually) o DNA: carries genetic information (genes) o Genes determine order of amino acids in proteins o RNA: 3 main types involved in manufacture of proteins Cells Structure and function o ~1830s cell theory All plants and animals are made of cells o Cell size 1 cm = 0.4 inches centimeter 1 mm = 1/10 cm millimeter um = 1/1000 mm micrometer o Human hair: thickness 50100 microns um 2 Biology 100 Molecules of Life (continued) 8/30/16 1 um: 1/100 of diameter of human hair o Example: bacteria approx. 12 microns in diameter Red blood cell: ~8 microns in diameter Large cells: ~25 microns100 microns Amoeba: 100 microns Cell parts o Cell membrane Important for controlling movement of molecules into and out of cell Nucleus: 25100 microns in diameter Some substances are carried across membrane by special proteins Transmitting information from outside cell to inside (cytoplasm) and then to nucleus Process called “signal transduction” 3 Bio 100 The Cell 9/1/16 Cell Membrane: o Structure: Model of cell membrane that most scientist today feel is accurate: Fluid Mosaic Model Proposed in 1972 by Nicholson and Singer o Fluid: the parts can move o Mosaic: ~tiles that fit together } Constant Motion o 3 types of molecules in membrane: Proteins Phospholipids Cholesterol (insert cell membrane drawing) o Proteins can move around and are not “stuck” in place within membrane Proteins are like icebergs floating in a sea of lipid o Cholesterol makes membrane more rigid Harder for proteins to move More cholesterol > less fluid is membrane Cell Organelles “little organ” o Structures inside cell that have special functions. Some have membranes and some do not I. Organelles with membranes A. Plasma Membrane = Cell membrane o Surrounds whole cell B. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) o In electron microscope, the ER looks like a network of sheets and tubes o 2 types Rough ER “Dots” are ribosomes > make proteins in cell Smooth ER (no dots) Important for fat metabolism, detoxification C. Golgi o Looks like a stack of pancakes with small buds coming off sides o Golgi packages certain molecules into vesicles (small sacks) D. Lysosomes **lyso (Greek) dissolve/break up o “garbage disposal” of cell > contains enzymes that break down macromolecules into smaller pieces o Also destroys bacteria, fungi, and viruses pH inside lysosome: ~5 = acidic pH in cytoplasm: ~7 = neutral acidic pH is needed by enzymes to break down molecules & bacteria E. Cell Nucleus o Contains cell’s DNA 1 Bio 100 The Cell 9/1/16 o Has a double membrane > 2 lipid bilayers, one inside the other o Spaces, or pores, connect 2 membranes of nucleus o Pores allow big molecules to move from cytoplasm into nucleus and from ucleus into cytoplasm F. Mitochondria o Produce cell’s energy Food (glucose) + O 2 CO 2 H O2+ ATP (energy) o Muscle cells: need lots of energy Contain many mitochondria o Mitochondria contain a small amount of their own DNA Organelles that do not contain membranes G. Ribosomes o Make proteins H. Cytoskeleton o Tubes and fibers inside cell that provide shape and ability to move I. Cilia o Small hairlike structures that are on the outside of some cells Move materials, bacteria, and dirt away from cells Exchange through membranes Nutrients o Food and oxygen must be able to enter cell o CO a2d pieces of molecules (waste) must be able to leave cell Types of Exchange I. Diffusion (not controlled by proteins) a) Simple diffusion 2 Bio 100 The Cell 9/1/16 b) Osmosis II. Controlled transport a) Facilitated transport b) Active transport c) Endocytosis and exocytosis A. Diffusion a) Net movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration Example: I have $100 > $10 to Ralph ($0$10) o Ralph gives $2 back to me o Net movement = $8 Example (beaker of sugar and water) Net: high concentration to low concentration B. Simple diffusion across a membrane a) (beaker of O bubbles in water) Most gases (O , CO ) move across a 2 2 2 membrane by simple diffusion High concentration to low concentration b) When a substance moves from a high concentration to a low concentration: “it is moving DOWN a concentration gradient” Diffusion of O2 does not need proteins, does not need energy C. Osmosis 3 Bio 100 The Cell 9/1/16 a) Special kind of diffusion; equals net movement of water molecules down a concentration gradient Example: (2 beakers with water; one with 5 tsp. salt, and one with 1 tsp. salt) o the 5 tsp. salt water solution has the higher concentration (2 beakers of water) one beaker has a higher concentration of water molecules than the other 4
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