New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Biology 100 Week 2 notes and examples

by: Taylor Fortenberry

Biology 100 Week 2 notes and examples 100

Marketplace > University of Montevallo > Biology > 100 > Biology 100 Week 2 notes and examples
Taylor Fortenberry
University of Montevallo
GPA 2.88

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Molecules of life, the cell
Principles of Biology
Martin Klinger
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Principles of Biology

Popular in Biology

This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Fortenberry on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 100 at University of Montevallo taught by Martin Klinger in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at University of Montevallo.

Similar to 100 at University of Montevallo


Reviews for Biology 100 Week 2 notes and examples


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/04/16
Biology 100 Molecules of Life (continued) 8/30/16  Proteins continued o 2 amino acids linked together through a “peptide bond” o 2 amino acids = dipeptide o 3 amino acids = tripeptide o Many amino acids = polypeptide  Proteins are polypeptides o How many dipeptides  20 x 20 = 400 possibilities o How many tripeptides  20 x 20x 20 = 8000 possibilities o Many possible sequences of amino acids  Example:  small protein  insulin  50 amino acids  Example:  hemoglobin  Over 600 amino acids o The order of amino acids (those “R” groups) in polypeptide chain gives protein(s) different properties  Lipids (fats) o Important for:  energy, structure of cell membranes, hormones, help store heat o 2 main types of lipids  True fats  Contain fatty acids  Steroids  Do not contain fatty acids o True fats:  Fatty acid:  a long carbon chain w/ an acid group at the end  Fatty acid drawing  Most fatty acids in the body  most are between 12­20 carbons long  If all –c­c bonds in a fatty acid are single, then that fatty acid is saturated  Some acids have some –c­c=c double bonds  If there is one or more double bond, it is unsaturated  Difference:  Sat. fats:  solid at room temperature (Crisco)  Unsat. Fats:  mostly liquid at room temp (vegetable oils, olive oil,  etc.) o Special kinds of fats:  Monoglyceride  A molecule of glycerol and 1 fatty acid o Aka glycerin (monoglyceride example) o Could be saturated or unsaturated  Diglyceride  Glycerol molecule with 2 fatty acids o Diglyceride example 1 Biology 100 Molecules of Life (continued) 8/30/16  Triglyceride  Glycerol and 3 fatty acids o Triglyceride example  Phospholipids o Very important part of cell membranes  Contains:  diglyceride, phosphate group, polar head group  Example:  lecithin (emulsifier)  Polar head group: 6­7 main kinds o Fatty acids don’t like water  away from 2 O and would rather be in oils o Polar head group  likes water, likes to be near water  Steroids o 4 carbon rings  3 hexagons & one pentagon  Add different atoms to main structure, get very different properties  Examples:  cholesterol, testosterone, progesterone, estrogen Nucleic Acids (DNA, RNA):  Polymers (long chains) of nucleotides  Nucleotides o 5 carbon sugar RNA (ribose) and DNA (deoxy­ribose) o Phosphate group o Nitrogen containing base  RNA:  A, C, G, U  DNA:  A, C, G, T o DNA:  double stranded  2 polymers that are linked to each other through H bonds o In DNA, C always matches to G, and A always matches with T o RNA:  usually single stranded (except in certain viruses) DNA RNA Deoxyribose Ribose A, C, G, T A, C,G, U Double stranded Single stranded (usually) o DNA:  carries genetic information (genes) o Genes determine order of amino acids in proteins o RNA:  3 main types  involved in manufacture of proteins Cells  Structure and function o ~1830s  cell theory  All plants and animals are made of cells o Cell size  1 cm = 0.4 inches centimeter  1 mm = 1/10 cm millimeter  um = 1/1000 mm micrometer o Human hair:  thickness  50­100 microns um 2 Biology 100 Molecules of Life (continued) 8/30/16  1 um:  1/100 of diameter of human hair o Example:  bacteria approx. 1­2 microns in diameter  Red blood cell:  ~8 microns in diameter  Large cells:  ~25 microns­100 microns  Amoeba:  100 microns  Cell parts o Cell membrane  Important for controlling movement of molecules into and out of cell  Nucleus:  25­100 microns in diameter  Some substances are carried across membrane by special proteins  Transmitting information from outside cell to inside (cytoplasm) and then  to nucleus  Process called “signal transduction” 3 Bio 100 The Cell 9/1/16  Cell Membrane: o Structure:  Model of cell membrane that most scientist today feel is accurate:  Fluid  Mosaic Model  Proposed in 1972 by Nicholson and Singer o Fluid:  the parts can move o Mosaic:  ~tiles that fit together } Constant Motion o 3 types of molecules in membrane:  Proteins  Phospholipids  Cholesterol  (insert cell membrane drawing) o Proteins can move around and are not “stuck” in place within membrane  Proteins are like icebergs floating in a sea of lipid o Cholesterol makes membrane more rigid  Harder for proteins to move  More cholesterol ­> less fluid is membrane  Cell Organelles “little organ” o Structures inside cell that have special functions.  Some have membranes and  some do not I. Organelles with membranes A. Plasma Membrane = Cell membrane o Surrounds whole cell B. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) o In electron microscope, the ER looks like a network of sheets and tubes o 2 types  Rough ER  “Dots” are ribosomes ­> make proteins in cell  Smooth ER (no dots)  Important for fat metabolism, detoxification C. Golgi o Looks like a stack of pancakes with small buds coming off sides o Golgi packages certain molecules into vesicles (small sacks) D. Lysosomes **lyso (Greek) dissolve/break up o “garbage disposal” of cell ­> contains enzymes that break down macromolecules  into smaller pieces o Also destroys bacteria, fungi, and viruses  pH inside lysosome:  ~5 = acidic  pH in cytoplasm:  ~7 = neutral  acidic pH is needed by enzymes to break down molecules &  bacteria E. Cell Nucleus o Contains cell’s DNA 1 Bio 100 The Cell 9/1/16 o Has a double membrane ­> 2 lipid bi­layers, one inside the other o Spaces, or pores, connect 2 membranes of nucleus o Pores allow big molecules to move from cytoplasm into nucleus and from ucleus  into cytoplasm F. Mitochondria o Produce cell’s energy  Food (glucose) + O 2 CO  2 H O2+ ATP (energy) o Muscle cells:  need lots of energy  Contain many mitochondria o Mitochondria contain a small amount of their own DNA Organelles that do not contain membranes G. Ribosomes o Make proteins H. Cytoskeleton o Tubes and fibers inside cell that provide shape and ability to move I. Cilia o Small hair­like structures that are on the outside of some cells  Move materials, bacteria, and dirt away from cells Exchange through membranes  Nutrients o Food and oxygen must be able to enter cell o CO  a2d pieces of molecules (waste) must be able to leave cell  Types of Exchange I. Diffusion (not controlled by proteins) a) Simple diffusion 2 Bio 100 The Cell 9/1/16 b) Osmosis II. Controlled transport a) Facilitated transport b) Active transport c) Endocytosis and exocytosis A. Diffusion a) Net movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an  area of low concentration  Example:  I have $100 ­> $10 to Ralph ($0­$10) o Ralph gives $2 back to me o Net movement = $8   Example (beaker of sugar and water) Net:  high concentration to  low concentration B. Simple diffusion across a membrane a) (beaker of O  bubbles in water) Most gases (O , CO ) move across a  2 2 2 membrane by simple diffusion  High concentration to low concentration b) When a substance moves from a high concentration to a low  concentration:  “it is moving DOWN a concentration gradient”  Diffusion of O2 does not need proteins, does not need energy C. Osmosis 3 Bio 100 The Cell 9/1/16 a) Special kind of diffusion; equals net movement of water molecules down a concentration gradient  Example:  (2 beakers with water; one with 5 tsp. salt, and one with  1 tsp. salt)  o the 5 tsp. salt water solution has the higher concentration  (2 beakers of water) one beaker has a higher concentration of water molecules than the other 4


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.