New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Biology 2602 Notes/ extended exam 1 review

by: Sara Notetaker

Biology 2602 Notes/ extended exam 1 review 40053

Marketplace > Youngstown State University > 40053 > Biology 2602 Notes extended exam 1 review
Sara Notetaker
GPA 3.91

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Contains material from second set of slides. Specifically material the professor said we would need to know for the test
Organisms and Ecology (Bio 2)
Dr. Renne and Dr. Walker
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Organisms and Ecology (Bio 2)

Popular in Department

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sara Notetaker on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 40053 at Youngstown State University taught by Dr. Renne and Dr. Walker in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views.


Reviews for Biology 2602 Notes/ extended exam 1 review


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/04/16
Biology 2602 Study Guide 1- Test Date 9/8/2016 This is just a bulleted list of all the material the professor said would be on the exam as of 9/1/2016  Every organism has a “choice” to allocate resources to either survive or reproduce.  Forcing a population to delay its reproduction increases the mean longevity of individuals over time...The greater the delay, the longer the individuals will live. What is the mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon? o 2 mechanisms:  Genetic: it’s hard for natural selection to eliminate genetic conditions expressed later in life – so these conditions are passed on.  Physical: Darwinism (reproduction is costly)  More resources to reproduce less resources to survive  Ecology- the scientific study of how biotic and environmental interactions (abiotic) affect the distribution and abundance of organisms (and biochemical processes)  Natural Selection- when it operates- pushes a population in a particular direction 100% of the time.  Microevolution- a change in allele frequency in a population overtime o Underlying mechanisms  1. Change in the environment  2. Change in population (Genetic Drift)  3. Migration  4. Mutation  5.Assortive Mating  Artificial Selection- The breeding of plants and animals to produce desirable traits.  Natural Selection’s 3 components: o 1. More individuals are produced that can possibly survive (ALL species have potential for exponential growth) o 2. There must be ecological factors that hold the population size in check  Finite resources cause constrain on population growth o 3. Heritable traits that increase an individual’s rate of survival and/ or reproduction will tend to spread throughout the population.  Question: T/F- Organisms that reproduce more can account for those that don’t reproduce a lot or at all.  Directional Selection- consistent differential survival and/ or reproduction in a single phenotype.  **Individuals are selected- populations evolve.  Population- a group of conspecific organisms that frequently interbreed with each other and share the same geographic range (the latter differs widely among species.)  Biological Species Concept (BSC)- “species are group of actually or potential interbreeding natural populations, which are reproductively isolated from other such groups” (Mayr 1942.) o 3 components of BSC  1. Actual/potential breed  2.Natural population  3.Reproductively isolated from the other group.  Hardy-Weinberg Theorem Assumptions: o 1. The population is very large  Chance effects of allele frequency changed are thus greatly reduced o 2. Matings are random  Individuals show no mating preference for a particular genotype or phenotype o 3. There are no net changed in the gene pool due to mutation  Mutation from A to a equals a to A o 4. There is no migration of individuals into and out of the population o 5. There is no selection; all genotypes are equal in survivorship and reproductive success  When all of the HWT Assumptions are met there is NO MICROEVOLUTION o Microevolution is the normality  Natural Selection- differential survival and/ or reproduction among entities that differ in one or more heritable characteristics.  If selection occurred and we didn’t see large population response trait not very heritable  Individuals don’t evolve  POPULATIONS do.  Types of Natural Selection o 1. Directional Selection- consistent differential survival and/ or reproduction in a single phenotype that is above or below the current mean.  “cost of resistance” and “Use it or lose it”  o 2. Stabilizing (or Balancing) Selection- consistently higher survival and/ or reproduction in the intermediate phenotype.  o 3. Diversifying (or Disruptive) Selection- consistently lower survival and/ or reproduction in the intermediate phenotype.  A necessary condition for sympatric speciation (Speciation in the same area)   Genetic Drift- process of RANDOM change in allelic frequency over time.  Aka genetic stochasticity  Larger population lower strength of genetic drift  Founder Effect- genetic composition of founding population  Genetic Bottle Neck- occur when process of population reduction- cases a loss of genetic variation.  Speciation- process by which a new species is created. o Key component: REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION  Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms: o Pre-zygotic Isolating Mechanism:  Geographic Isolation  Species in different places  Ecological Isolation  Species use different resources in habitat. (Local adaptations to plant species)  Behavioral Isolation- Species have different mating rituals  Temporal Isolation- mating/lowering at different times (insert mating attempt)  Mechanical Isolation- structural differences prevent mating/ pollen transfer  Gamete Fusion Prevention- gametes fail to attract (chemical) o Post-zygotic Isolating Mechanism  Hybrid embryos do not develop properly  Hybrid adults do not survive in nature  Hybrid adults are sterile or have reduced fertility  Natural Selection and Speciation o In this case, natural selection will strongly favor matings within genetically similar groups- this reinforces pre-zygotic isolation mechanisms by avoiding wasted efforts  In most species strongest pressure is for females to choose wisely  Types of Speciation o Allopatric Speciation- Separation by geography o Polyploidy Speciation- “instantaneous speciation”- meiotic failure  Mostly in plants o Sympatric Speciation- Same region speciation  Disruptive selection  Local adaptations  Individuals are selected Populations EVOLVE  Phylogeny- evolutionary tree (ex: Family tree) o When creating, look for maximum parsimony  Maximum Parsimony- simplest explanation- which requires the fewest variables- is usually the correct one.  Adaptive Radiation (Species Radiations)- proliferation of multiple species from a common ancestor o Usually associated with rapid ecological niche diversification  Ecological Niche- ecological space where a given phenotype can extract energy  Convergent Evolution- evolution of similar adaptations in distantly related organisms that occupy similar habitats o Adaptations are driven by the physical environment  Characteristics of Animals: o ALL are multicellular heterotrophs  Use other things to obtain nutritional requirements o MOST have nerves, muscles, capacity to move at some point in life cycle o MOST reproduce sexually, even if occasionally o Cells exist in extensive extracellular matrix  4 Main Morphological and Developmental Classification Features o 1. Presence or absence of different tissue types  Animals have specialized tissues o 2. Type of body symmetry  Bilateral symmetry o 3. Presence or absence of a true body cavity  Humans are coelomates  Body cavity lined with Mesoderm o 4. Patterns of embryonic development  Hox Genes- genes that regulate other gene expression in embryonic stages  Phylum Platyheminthes aka Flatworms o NO specialized respiratory or circulatory system to transport gases o Among the first animals with an active predatory lifestyle and among 1 st animals with bilateral symmetry for organ specialization  Parthenogenesis- unfertilized diploid eggs develop into females.  Phylum Mollusca o Soft body with many species having internal or external shell o Radula- unique tongue-like organ o Longitudinal and Circular Muscles for complex movement  Longitudinal: move side to side  Circular: get smaller/ bigger  Phylum Arthropoda o Most species are in this Phylum o Exoskeleton made of unique chitin protein o Segmented with specialized appendages o Extensive Cephalization  Concentration of neurons (ganglia or brain) o Open circulatory system  Gas exchange  gills or tracheal system (small holes in exoskeleton)  Phylum Chordata- nerve cord beginning to form.  Subphylum Urochordata – Closest living relative to vertebra  Craniates (Includes Vertebrates) o 2 defining characteristics compared to invertebrate chordates  1. Cranium- bony or cartilaginous housing for brain  2. Neural Crest o Class Myxini- ONLY Craniate that is NOT a vertebrate  Vertebrates o Vertebral column o Endoskeleton of cartilage or bone  Unique o Internal organs  Liver is unique  Class Chondricthyes o Cartilaginous fish o Lateral line- pressure wave detection  Amniotes and the Transition to Land o SHELLED EGG o Other Key Innovations for Land  LUNGS  Water-conserving kidneys  Internal fertilization  Class Aves o 4 features unique to birds among living vertebrates  1. Feathers- modified scales keep birds warm and eligible for flight  2. Air Sacs- very efficient breathing  3. Reduction of Organs  4. Lightweight skeleton- thin, hallow, honeycombed bones  NO TEETH o Birds also have warm body temperature (not unique birds)  Mammals o Distinguishing Characteristics  Mammary glands- secrete milk  Most mammals have hair  Specialized teeth  Enlarged skull  Single lower jaw bone o Subclass Theria  Placental mammals  LONGEST LIVED o Modern Humans: 50,000- 30,000 years ago


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.