Biology 2602 Notes/ extended exam 1 review
Biology 2602 Notes/ extended exam 1 review 40053
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sara Notetaker on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 40053 at Youngstown State University taught by Dr. Renne and Dr. Walker in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
Biology 2602 Study Guide 1- Test Date 9/8/2016 This is just a bulleted list of all the material the professor said would be on the exam as of 9/1/2016 Every organism has a “choice” to allocate resources to either survive or reproduce. Forcing a population to delay its reproduction increases the mean longevity of individuals over time...The greater the delay, the longer the individuals will live. What is the mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon? o 2 mechanisms: Genetic: it’s hard for natural selection to eliminate genetic conditions expressed later in life – so these conditions are passed on. Physical: Darwinism (reproduction is costly) More resources to reproduce less resources to survive Ecology- the scientific study of how biotic and environmental interactions (abiotic) affect the distribution and abundance of organisms (and biochemical processes) Natural Selection- when it operates- pushes a population in a particular direction 100% of the time. Microevolution- a change in allele frequency in a population overtime o Underlying mechanisms 1. Change in the environment 2. Change in population (Genetic Drift) 3. Migration 4. Mutation 5.Assortive Mating Artificial Selection- The breeding of plants and animals to produce desirable traits. Natural Selection’s 3 components: o 1. More individuals are produced that can possibly survive (ALL species have potential for exponential growth) o 2. There must be ecological factors that hold the population size in check Finite resources cause constrain on population growth o 3. Heritable traits that increase an individual’s rate of survival and/ or reproduction will tend to spread throughout the population. Question: T/F- Organisms that reproduce more can account for those that don’t reproduce a lot or at all. Directional Selection- consistent differential survival and/ or reproduction in a single phenotype. **Individuals are selected- populations evolve. Population- a group of conspecific organisms that frequently interbreed with each other and share the same geographic range (the latter differs widely among species.) Biological Species Concept (BSC)- “species are group of actually or potential interbreeding natural populations, which are reproductively isolated from other such groups” (Mayr 1942.) o 3 components of BSC 1. Actual/potential breed 2.Natural population 3.Reproductively isolated from the other group. Hardy-Weinberg Theorem Assumptions: o 1. The population is very large Chance effects of allele frequency changed are thus greatly reduced o 2. Matings are random Individuals show no mating preference for a particular genotype or phenotype o 3. There are no net changed in the gene pool due to mutation Mutation from A to a equals a to A o 4. There is no migration of individuals into and out of the population o 5. There is no selection; all genotypes are equal in survivorship and reproductive success When all of the HWT Assumptions are met there is NO MICROEVOLUTION o Microevolution is the normality Natural Selection- differential survival and/ or reproduction among entities that differ in one or more heritable characteristics. If selection occurred and we didn’t see large population response trait not very heritable Individuals don’t evolve POPULATIONS do. Types of Natural Selection o 1. Directional Selection- consistent differential survival and/ or reproduction in a single phenotype that is above or below the current mean. “cost of resistance” and “Use it or lose it” o 2. Stabilizing (or Balancing) Selection- consistently higher survival and/ or reproduction in the intermediate phenotype. o 3. Diversifying (or Disruptive) Selection- consistently lower survival and/ or reproduction in the intermediate phenotype. A necessary condition for sympatric speciation (Speciation in the same area) Genetic Drift- process of RANDOM change in allelic frequency over time. Aka genetic stochasticity Larger population lower strength of genetic drift Founder Effect- genetic composition of founding population Genetic Bottle Neck- occur when process of population reduction- cases a loss of genetic variation. Speciation- process by which a new species is created. o Key component: REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms: o Pre-zygotic Isolating Mechanism: Geographic Isolation Species in different places Ecological Isolation Species use different resources in habitat. (Local adaptations to plant species) Behavioral Isolation- Species have different mating rituals Temporal Isolation- mating/lowering at different times (insert mating attempt) Mechanical Isolation- structural differences prevent mating/ pollen transfer Gamete Fusion Prevention- gametes fail to attract (chemical) o Post-zygotic Isolating Mechanism Hybrid embryos do not develop properly Hybrid adults do not survive in nature Hybrid adults are sterile or have reduced fertility Natural Selection and Speciation o In this case, natural selection will strongly favor matings within genetically similar groups- this reinforces pre-zygotic isolation mechanisms by avoiding wasted efforts In most species strongest pressure is for females to choose wisely Types of Speciation o Allopatric Speciation- Separation by geography o Polyploidy Speciation- “instantaneous speciation”- meiotic failure Mostly in plants o Sympatric Speciation- Same region speciation Disruptive selection Local adaptations Individuals are selected Populations EVOLVE Phylogeny- evolutionary tree (ex: Family tree) o When creating, look for maximum parsimony Maximum Parsimony- simplest explanation- which requires the fewest variables- is usually the correct one. Adaptive Radiation (Species Radiations)- proliferation of multiple species from a common ancestor o Usually associated with rapid ecological niche diversification Ecological Niche- ecological space where a given phenotype can extract energy Convergent Evolution- evolution of similar adaptations in distantly related organisms that occupy similar habitats o Adaptations are driven by the physical environment Characteristics of Animals: o ALL are multicellular heterotrophs Use other things to obtain nutritional requirements o MOST have nerves, muscles, capacity to move at some point in life cycle o MOST reproduce sexually, even if occasionally o Cells exist in extensive extracellular matrix 4 Main Morphological and Developmental Classification Features o 1. Presence or absence of different tissue types Animals have specialized tissues o 2. Type of body symmetry Bilateral symmetry o 3. Presence or absence of a true body cavity Humans are coelomates Body cavity lined with Mesoderm o 4. Patterns of embryonic development Hox Genes- genes that regulate other gene expression in embryonic stages Phylum Platyheminthes aka Flatworms o NO specialized respiratory or circulatory system to transport gases o Among the first animals with an active predatory lifestyle and among 1 st animals with bilateral symmetry for organ specialization Parthenogenesis- unfertilized diploid eggs develop into females. Phylum Mollusca o Soft body with many species having internal or external shell o Radula- unique tongue-like organ o Longitudinal and Circular Muscles for complex movement Longitudinal: move side to side Circular: get smaller/ bigger Phylum Arthropoda o Most species are in this Phylum o Exoskeleton made of unique chitin protein o Segmented with specialized appendages o Extensive Cephalization Concentration of neurons (ganglia or brain) o Open circulatory system Gas exchange gills or tracheal system (small holes in exoskeleton) Phylum Chordata- nerve cord beginning to form. Subphylum Urochordata – Closest living relative to vertebra Craniates (Includes Vertebrates) o 2 defining characteristics compared to invertebrate chordates 1. Cranium- bony or cartilaginous housing for brain 2. Neural Crest o Class Myxini- ONLY Craniate that is NOT a vertebrate Vertebrates o Vertebral column o Endoskeleton of cartilage or bone Unique o Internal organs Liver is unique Class Chondricthyes o Cartilaginous fish o Lateral line- pressure wave detection Amniotes and the Transition to Land o SHELLED EGG o Other Key Innovations for Land LUNGS Water-conserving kidneys Internal fertilization Class Aves o 4 features unique to birds among living vertebrates 1. Feathers- modified scales keep birds warm and eligible for flight 2. Air Sacs- very efficient breathing 3. Reduction of Organs 4. Lightweight skeleton- thin, hallow, honeycombed bones NO TEETH o Birds also have warm body temperature (not unique birds) Mammals o Distinguishing Characteristics Mammary glands- secrete milk Most mammals have hair Specialized teeth Enlarged skull Single lower jaw bone o Subclass Theria Placental mammals LONGEST LIVED o Modern Humans: 50,000- 30,000 years ago
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