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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Notetaker on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 107 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by David Schroeder in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see US History I Honors in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
US History- Early Colonization 08/26/2016 ▯ Motivations: Desire for Wealth o Particularly led by Marco Polo- merchants traveled East to send caravans to procure valuable commodities to sell for huge profits in Europe (i.e. spices, rugs, vases, gems, etc.) o Silk Road o Particularly to Venice or Genoa o Merchants get extremely wealthy- why renaissance (art and inventions) started in Northern Italy- bc they had the money to spend on nice things o Astrolabe, compass, and caravel were invented during renaissance and made oversea travel possible Overland Routes becoming dangerous o Mongol Empire deteriorating (virtually gone by 1400s) Mongols kept peace in their territory and kept routes safe o Other nations begin looking for safer and faster routes o Portuguese had the idea to sail down the coast of Africa to discover East lands. Found ivory and diamonds Also procured slaves to make sugar off coast of Africa o Columbus thought he could beat Italians via silk road and Portuguese via sailing, by sailing west Underestimated how wide the Earth is o Found the Americas- tobacco and sugar (makes rum) o Spanish sent conquistadors to establish Spanish empire from Canadian border to central America and most of South America Rich in silver o Spanish were sending over 30 mil silver coins a year back to Spain from the new world Becoming v wealthy Desire to Spread Christianity o Spanish sent missionaries to convert natives and built churches o Spanish were very successful at gaining wealth and spreading Christianity o Encountered 2 problems: No desire to stay permanently- just wanted to get rich quick No crop rotation- killed soil then went back to spain after getting rich, no relations with tribes Split up into viceroyalties ruled by viceroys who remained in Spain- People that lived in Spanish empire had no say- all controlled from spain for benefit of Spanish crown ▯ ▯ English in 1580s have the Atlantic Seaboard remaining to colonize Queen Elizabeth wasn’t eager to colonize- wanted to gain wealth through “Sea Dogs” aka pirates A Discourse on Western Planting (Hakluyt)- article the states the English need to colonize and get the wealth of the New World and convert natives to Protestantistm. England was losing their forests due to pop growth so they needed timber from new world, etc. Settle on Roanoke off NC coast- expedition included men, women, and children—intention to stay Ships leave back to England to get supplies Spanish Armada attacked (1588) and ships were unable to return until 3 years later When they return, they find an abandoned colony- it remains a mystery as to what happened there. Queen Elizabeth was against colonizing new world James I rule o Joint-Stock Virginia Company had desire to travel to the New World to make more $$ o Jamestown colony Suffered substantially in first few years 104 indivs, mostly men- bosses lived across the ocean so they weren’t motivated. Believed company wouldn’t let them starve Can’t find anything to make them money Too cold to raise sugar- could only raise tobacco but it was “foul tasting” to Europeans In the first year, only 38/105 survived the first winter Winter 1609-10, of the ~300, only 60 survived and had to resort to cannibalism to do so John Smith o Took charge of colony o Put them to work o 1624- company went bankrupt and English took over colony- had over 1,000 people, despite the fact they had sent 14,000 people over 17 years Family Life Government Social Hierarchy Enconomy Religious Practices Early Colonization James I rule o Joint-Stock Virginia Company had desire to travel to the New World to make more $$ o Jamestown colony o Suffered substantially in first few years o 104 indivs, mostly men- bosses lived across the ocean so they weren’t motivated. Believed company wouldn’t let them starve o Can’t find anything to make them money o Too cold to raise sugar- could only raise tobacco but it was “foul tasting” to Europeans o In the first year, only 38/105 survived the first winter o Winter 1609-10, of the ~300, only 60 survived and had to resort to cannibalism to do so John Smith o Took charge of colony o Put them to work o 1624- company went bankrupt and English took over colony- had over 1,000 people, despite the fact they had sent 14,000 people over 17 years Family Life In Europe- “nuclear family” Husband was head and worker of household, house wife, children. Everyone under fathers authority, thus considered part of family (apprentices, servants, etc.) o What they desired to bring to the new world in Jamestown Two things disrupt family structure in new world i. High mortality rates (“seasoning”) ii. Less women Extended family becomes important (i.e. neighbors, aunts, uncles, etc.) ▯ Government England had monarchy and parliament o Parliament approved taxes and passed laws o House of Commons and House of Lords House of Burgesses to represent colonies- each colony had 2 reps for 11 settlements Only white men who owned land were allowed to vote Had the power to levy taxes and the power to decide laws? Colonists didn’t pay taxes to England- followed laws passed by their colonial assemblies and paid taxes to their colonial assembly Each colony is separate and they didn’t intermingle Social Hierarchy Nobles/Lords/Barons o At the top of social chain o Generally signified because they did not have to work o Owned land instead o Made $$ from peasants and serfs Gentlemen o Had to work o Generally “with minds” Lawyers, bankers, doctors, engineers, etc… Yeomen o Owned land but not enough o Worked it themselves o Also skilled craftsmen- owned their own shop Baker, shoe cobbler, carpenter, etc… Peasants o Did not own land o Rented land from lords Serfs o Couldn’t even rent land o Paid with labor or produce ▯ Enconomy Goal was to make it similar to that of Europe John Rolfe o Fashioned a “hybrid” tobacco seed o Sellable to middle and working class European Led to a tobacco boom- tobacco was the main economy of new world o Peasants and serfs virtually disappeared because there was enough land for everyone Not enough people to work land led to indentured servants o Indentured servants would pay to come to new world with work o Usually worked between 5 and 9 yrs o Land owner supplies food, clothing, and shelter o Receive a “Headright” after service- 50 acres of land along with seed to begin crop and tools o Journey for indentured servants was terrible- tight living conditions and rotten food and water o Poor conditions in colonies too- limited food o Better for skilled workers Slaves o Introduced in VA o 1619-1642- Africans listed by first and last name and had terms of service included on census o 1642-1670- Only first name on census, longer terms, unfair court cases o 1670-1865- VA passed a slave code; listed as “Africans” on censuses with no terms of service Slaves became property until end of slavery Gentleman class goes away with tobacco economy o Not much of a banking industry or merchants ▯ Religious Practices Church of England o Protestant church that retained many catholic features o Paid for by taxes Colonies were very spread apart- churches could only serve about 5- 10 families Colonists not very motivated to go to church ▯ ▯ Terms: Puritan- English religious denomination that wanted to purify English church of it’s over catholic features Pilgrim- any religious traveler o Very broad term ▯ New England colonies were puritan- kicked out anyone not willing to follow their religion Did not deal with issues of early VA o Low mortality rates and mosquito born diseases o Never starved ▯ Family Life Similar to that of Virginia o Consisted of father, mother, children, and anyone under father’s authority Ability to sustain family was not as difficult as it was in VA There are more women- send families from Europe Believed family was the fundamental socializing institution that raised children to be good adults!! o Anything that disrupted the family was dealt with harshly Disobedient children could be put to death by their fathers Adultery could also be punishable by death If you came alone, you’d be randomly placed in a family ▯ Social Hierarchy Also brought it with them from Europe Eroded partially because of the economy Had rules to maintain hierarchy as best as they could Believed in Dual pre-destination o God has decided ahead of time who is going to heaven and who’s going to hell o Nothing you can do in your lifetime to change that o God placed people in the social structure based on where you were going Sinful to move up or down social hierarchy Laws to keep things as they were o Regrading- if you buy something, it is illegal to resell it for more than you purchased it for o Forestalling- Using knowledge of supply and demand to take advantage of the necessities of other people at certain times o Engrossing- trying to drive out competitors so you get all the business w fluctuation of prices o Sumptuary Laws- A series of laws that dictated what you could wear and where you could sit to maintain the social hierarchy Peasants and serfs still disappear because of abundance of land ▯ Economy Too cold to raise crops and not an abundance of rivers Terrain is rocky and hilly Could raise things with short growing seasons o Mainly yeomen farms o Slavery was never very widespread Developed towns and cities with lawyers, bankers, doctors, shopkeepers Developed an extensive fisherman population- people who make their money from the sea Ship building and commercial industry o Carrying trade- carry goods across Atlantic Nobles become obsolete- don’t have a lot of plantations and land owners Much more diversified than Virginia & much healthier!! Thriving gentleman class Don’t make as good returns as tobacco ▯ Government Colonial assembly- General Court o Exact same powers as the House of Burgesses o Levy taxes and make laws o Had to be a male property owner and church member to vote Church member- demonstrate you are one of the “Elect”- one of the people god has decided to save Laws have strong biblical influence/justification o Gradually done away with o Halfway covenant- allowed children of church members to vote o 1691- church member requirement done away with Many believe this began Salem Witch Trials ▯ Church Foundation of Family, Government, Social Hierarchy, EVERYTHING Predestination Church attendance was compulsory?? Separated by class Get rid of Church hierarchy- no pope or bishop Put power in hands of the congregation o Congregation could choose their own ministers Usually very plain churches Did not celebrate Christmas ▯ ▯ OTHER COLONIES- people banned from Mass for their religious teachings ▯ Rhode Island- Roger Williams kicked out of Mass; believed in sep of church and state- first colony to offer religious freedom ▯ Connecticut- Thomas Hooker- Kicked out of Mass for telling ppl to accept god- too Baptist ▯ New Hampshire- Anne Hutchison and John Wheelwright exiled from Mass for holding church in their house. New Hampshire began as part of Mass until 1679 ▯ Maine- always part of Massachusetts until 1820 ▯ ▯ Maryland After VA (1630s) Cecil Calvert/Lord Baltimore o English Catholic that feared potential for catholics to be persecuted Haven for English Catholics Developed very similar to VA Tobacco cultivation, indentured servitude, and slaves Catholics were not the majority Proprietaries- land grants ▯ Carolina Originally both N & S Come in 1670s Granted to 8 proprietors o Anthony Ashley Cooper o Sugar planters from Barbados o Wanted to turn it into a colony of Barbados to turn all of Barbados into sugar cultivation and use Carolinas for food Carolinas used to make rice- very profitable crop o South Carolina becomes richest colony Also grew indigo Split in 1701 ▯ Georgia Last colony established (1730s) James Ogle Thorpe o Testing the Enlightenment- man can be perfected o Took poor and uncivilized people to try to build the perfect society English want a colony between Spanish Florida and rich SC Banned slavery and excessive land ownership Eventually abandoned project and Georgia switches to cultivating rice and adopt slavery o Smaller version of SC ▯ NY/NJ Established by Dutch in 1614 o Wanted to cultivate cash crops to make money o Too cold to raise sugar or tobacco New Netherlands New Amsterdam Peter Minuit Patroon ships o Big units that raised crops ▯ PA/DE Originally established by William Penn Last colonies other than Georgia to be established Haven for a persecuted religious sect- society of friends o Two principal beliefs 1. Believe Holy Spirit can speak through ministers and people any day of the week- established meeting houses to have meetings whenever 2. Believed Holy Spirit could speak through anyone o “Quakers” o Pacifists- wouldn’t fight o Iriquois confederation of Native Americans- quakers didn’t fight them to move; they made deals and bought land instead. o Very anti-slavery Play a fundamental role in the underground railroad Delaware had its own colonial assembly but share the same governor as PAz Had a very diverse population because Quakers had seeked refuge in Germany, Amsterdam, etc… o William Penn also offered people religious toleration and elected assembly and promoted it a lot to different countries o People of all different religious denominations Mainly grew oats