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Chapter Two Notes

by: Aaliyah Scott

Chapter Two Notes HLTH 500

Aaliyah Scott

GPA 2.9

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These notes cover Chapter Two on what she wants us to know.
Contemporary Health Problems
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aaliyah Scott on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HLTH 500 at Winthrop University taught by Hamill in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Contemporary Health Problems in Health and Human Services at Winthrop University.

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Date Created: 09/04/16
Chapter 2 Notes Definitions: Stressor: Any physical or psychological event or condition that produces physical and emotional reactions. Stress Response: The physical and emotional reactions to a stressor. Stress: The general physical and emotional state that accompanies the stress response. Nervous System: The brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Autonomic Nervous System: The branch of the nervous system that controls basic body processes; consists of  the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. Parasympathetic Division: A division of the autonomic nervous system that moderates that excitatory effect of the sympathetic division, slowing metabolism and restoring energy supplies. Sympathetic Division: A division of the autonomic nervous system that reacts to danger or challenges by  accelerating body processes.  Norepinephrine: A neurotransmitter released by the sympathetic nervous system into specific tissues to  increase their function in the face of increased activity; when released by the brain, causes arousal (increased  attention, awareness, and alertness); also called noradrenaline. Endocrine System: The system of gland, tissues and cells that secrete hormones into the bloodstream to  influence metabolism and other body processes.  Hormone: A chemical messenger produced in the body and transported in the bloodstream to target cells or  organs for specific regulation of their activities.  Cortisol: A steroid hormone secreted by the cortex (outer layer) of the adrenal gland; also called  hydrocortisone.  Epinephrine: A hormone secreted by the medulla (inner core) of the adrenal gland; that affects the functioning  of organs involved in responding to a stressor; also called adrenaline. Endorphins: Brain secretions that have pain­inhibiting effects. Fight or Flight Reaction: A defense reaction that prepares a person for conflict or escape by triggering  hormonal, cardiovascular, metabolic, and other charges. Homeostasis: A stage state of stability and consistency in an individual’s physiological functioning. Somatic Nervous System: The branch of the peripheral nervous system that governs motor functions and  sensory information, largely under conscious control. Personality:  The sum of behavioral, cognitive, and emotional tendencies. Gender Role:  A culturally expected pattern of behavior and attitudes determined by a person’s sex. General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS):  A pattern of stress responses consisting of three stages: alarm,  resistance, and exhaustion. Eustress: Stress resulting from a pleasant stressor. Distress: Stress resulting from an unpleasant stressor. Allostatic Load: The long­term negative impact of the stress response on the body.  Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI): The study of the interactions among the nervous, endocrine, and immune  systems. Acute Stress: Stress immediately following a stressor; may last only minutes or may turn into chronic stress. Chronic Stress: Stress that continues for days, weeks, or longer. Burnout: A state of physical, mental, and emotional exhaustion.  Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep: The portion of the sleep cycle during which dreaming occurs. Non­Rapid Eye Movement (Non­Rem) Sleep: The portion of the sleep cycle that involves deep sleep; non­ Rem sleep includes four states of successively deeper sleep. Sleep Deprivation: A lack of sleep over a period. Insomnia: A sleep problem involving the inability to fall or stay asleep. Sleep Apnea: The interruption of normal breathing during sleep. Relaxation Response: A physiological state characterized by a feeling or warmth and quiet mental alertness. Visualization: A technique for promoting relaxation or improving performance that involves creating or  recreating vivid mental pictures of a place or an experience; also called imagery. Mediation: A technique for quieting the mind by focusing on a particular word, objects or process Physical Responses to Stressors  Actions of the Nervous System­ Under voluntary control. o Parasympathetic­ Aids in digesting food, storing energy, and promoting growth. o Sympathetic – Active during arousal, exercise, when there’s an emergency such as severe pain,  anger or fear.  Actions of the Endocrine System o System of glands, tissues, and cells helps control body functions by releasing hormones and  other chemical messengers into the bloodstream to influence metabolism and other body  processes.  Return of Homeostasis   Fight or Flight  Emotional and Behavioral Responses to Stressors  Personality and Stress o Type A: People are ultracompetitive, controlling, impatient, aggressive and hostile. They have  high stress levels and more problems coping with stress. o Type B: People are relaxed and contemplative. They are less stress by daily events and more  tolerant of others behavior. o Type C: People who are anger suppressed, have difficult expressing feelings, have feelings of  hopelessness and despair. o Resilience­ Refers to personality traits associated with social and academic success in at­risk  populations.  Cultural Background o People come from all over to come to America to get a higher education and with the mix of the  different cultures, those people may have a harder time and become more stressed out.  Gender o Gender roles can affect one’s perception of a stressor. o Levels of testosterone increase in men from puberty onward to where men blood pressure is  higher than women. o Women have higher levels of oxytocin (hormone that is involved in social interaction and mood  regulation. Like are more likely to respond to stressor by seeking social support.  Experience Links between Stress and Specific Conditions     Cardiovascular Disease     Psychological Problems     Altered Immune Function     Headaches      Tension Headaches­ Dull, steady pain on both sides of the head. Leading causes are stress, poor posture, and immobility. NO cure, over the counter meds may help, massages, rest and  relaxation.       Migraine­Symptoms: Throbbing pain on one side of head, sensitivity to light, nausea, dizziness, and etc. More for women and causes are menstruation, stress, fatigue, and etc.       Cluster headaches­ Extreme serve headaches that causes intense pains in or around your eye.  Mostly for men and there’s no cause or cure.     Other Health Problems Common Sources of Stress  Major Life Changes  Daily Basis  College Stressors o Academic Stress o Interpersonal Stress o Time Pressure  o Financial Concerns o Worries about future  Job Related Stressors  Social Stressors o Real Social Networks o Virtual Social Networks Managing Stress  Social Support o This can provide a critical counterbalance to the stress in our life’s. Give yourself time to  develop and maintain a network of people you can count on for emotional support, feedback and  nurturing.  Communication  Exercise o Exercise helps maintain a healthy body and mind and even stimulates the birth of new brain  cells.  o Take long walks. A 10­minute walk can leave you relaxed.  Nutrition o Healthy Diet gives you an energy bank when you’re stress.  Sleep o Blood Pressure Drops o Respiration and heart slows down o Body Temp. declines o Growth Hormones released. o Brain Wave patterns become slow and even.  Striving for Spiritual Wellness o Social Support o Healthy Habits o Positive Attitudes o Moments of relaxation   Relaxation Techniques o Deep Breathing o Yoga o Listening to Music o Meditation 


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