Functional Bio Chapter 1: The Tree of Life
Functional Bio Chapter 1: The Tree of Life Bio 1330
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by mythical.mm on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1330 at Texas State University taught by Anica Debilica in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Functional Biology in Biology at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
Chapter 1: Biology and The Tree of Life An organism is an entity made up of one or more cells Characteristics of Life: 1. Cells: organisms are made up of membrane-bound units called cells. The membrane of a cell regulates the passage of materials between interior and exterior spaces 2. Replication: Everything an organism does contributes to one goal- replicating itself 3. Evolution: changing over time 4. Information: process hereditary, or genetic, information encoded in units called genes. Respond to outside stimuli 5. Energy: Acquire and use energy (plants absorb sunlight and animals ingest food) Three of the greatest unifying ideas in science are the cell theory, the theory of evolution, and the chromosome theory of inheritance A theory is an explanation for a very general class of phenomena or observations that are supported by a wide body of evidence The cell theory describes how all organisms are made up of cells and how all cells come from preexisting cells The theory of evolution is the process of how organisms change over time, natural selection The chromosome theory of inheritance identifies chromosomes as the carriers of genetic materials A hypothesis is a testable statement that explains something An experiment allows researchers to test the effect on factors on particular phenomena A prediction is a measurable or observable result that must be correct if the hypothesis is valid A species is a distinct, identifiable type of organism Evolution is a change in a population over time A population is a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area at the same time Speciation occurs when populations make more species Fitness is the ability of an individual to produce offspring Adaptation is the trait that increases the fitness of an individual in a particular environment Natural Selection: 1. Individuals must vary in characteristics that are heritable 2. Certain versions of these heritable traits help individuals reproduce more than oher versions The Central Dogma: o The Central Dogma describes the flow of information in cells o A chromosome consists of a molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) o DNA is a hereditary material o DNA is a double stranded helix o Genes consist of specific segments of DNA that code for products in the cells o Each strand of the double helix is made up of varying sequences of four different types of building block A- adenine T- thymine Pair together G- guanine C- cytosine Pair together o Molecular machinery in the cells makes a copy of a particular gene’s information in the form of a closely related molecule called ribonucleic acid (RNA) o RNA molecules determine what building blocks to use to make protein Organism’s Fundamental Needs: o Acquiring chemical energy in the form of a molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP) o Obtaining molecules that can be used as building blocks for the synthesis of DNA, RNA, proteins, the cell membrane and other large, complex compounds required by the cell The Tree of Life: o Used to understand the phylogeny of all organisms - their actual genealogical relationships o A diagram that depicts evolutionary history is called a phylogenetic tree o The sequence of building blocks in DNA is a trait that can change over the course of evolution o Researchers propose that the trees routes extend back to the “Last Universal Common Ancestor” (LUCA) o To draw trees researchers, use molecular biology, morphology, embryology, fossil records and evolutionary relationships o Groups of Organisms: Bacteria Archaea Eukarya 3 Domains of Life o Eukaryotes= membrane bound nucleus o Prokaryotes= no nucleus (mostly bacterial and archaeal cells) o Taxonomy is the effort to name and classify organisms o Any group of organisms is called a taxon (plural: taxa) o Biologists use the word phylum (plural: phyla) to refer to major lineages within each domain o Phyla are categorized by distinctive body structures as well as gene sequence Binomial Nomenclature: o Genus (plural: genera) is made up of closely related groups of species o Species is always preceded by its genus, regularly breed o Genus names are capitalized but species names are not, italicized (ex: Homo sapiens) o If you are writing the scientific name and cannot italicize, then underline the 2-part scientific name
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