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Psych 1560H Week 1-2 Notes

by: Douglas Rutana

Psych 1560H Week 1-2 Notes PSYC 1560H

Douglas Rutana
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About this Document

These notes are for chapter 1 and chapter 2 of Honors' Psychology.
Honors' Psychology
Dr. Lindberg
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology, Psychology, honors




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Douglas Rutana on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1560H at Youngstown State University taught by Dr. Lindberg in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Honors' Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Youngstown State University.


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Date Created: 09/05/16
Module 1 • What is the science of psychology? • Major specialties in the field? • Where do psychologistswork? • Psychology-Scientific study of behavior & mental processes • How? ○ Scientific Method • Subfields Of Psychology ○ Behavioral Genetics- how we inherit traits & influence of environmenton expression (emphasis on our biology & how it shapes behavior) ○ Behavioral Neuroscience- how the brain & nervous system determinebehavior ○ Clinical Psychology-study, diagnose & treat psychological disorders ○ Clinical Neuropsychology-biological origins of psychological disorders (Brain Chemistry, etc..) ○ Counseling Psychology-help people deal with specific problems ○ Cross-cultural Psychology-differences in psychologyacross cultures ○ DevelopmentalPsychology-how people grow and change across lifespan ○ Educational Psychology-Explore the processes of teaching & learning ○ EnvironmentalPsychology-Interactions between humans & our environment ○ EvolutionaryPsychology-How inherited genetics from ancestors guide behavior ○ Experimental Psychology-How we sense, perceive,learn, and think about the world ○ Forensic Psychology-Psychologyas it pertains to legal issues ○ Health Psychology-Relationship between psychologyand health ○ Industrial Psychology-Psychologyin the workplace ○ PersonalityPsychology-Consistency in behavior and individual differences ○ Program Evaluation- Assess efficacy of large-scale programs ○ Psychologyof Women-Discrimination against women and violence ○ School Psychology-Counseling re: academic and emotionalissues within the educational system ○ Social Psychology-How we are affected by others ○ Sport Psychology-Psychologyapplied to athletics • Biological Foundations of Behavior ○ People are Biological Organisms ○ Behavioral Neuroscience  Subfield  Focuses on how the brain, nervous system,and other biological aspects of the body, determine behavior • How do People Sense, perceive,learn and think about the world ○ Experimental Psychology  Studies processes of sensing, perceiving, learning, and thinking about the world  Subspecialty □ Cognitive psychology- focus on higher mental processes □ All subfields us the experimental method • What are the sources of change and stability in behavior across the life span ○ Developmentalpsychology  Studies how people grow and change from the momentof conception through death ○ Personalitypsychology  Focus on consistency in people's behavior over time and traits that differentiate people • How do psychological factors affect physical and mental health ○ Health psychology  Explores relationship betweenpsychological factors and physical ailments or disease ○ Clinical psychology  Deals with the study, diagnosis, and treatmentof psychological disorders ○ Counseling psychology  Focus primarily on educational, social, and career adjustment problems • How do our social networksaffect behavior? ○ Social psychology  Studty how peoples thoughts feelings and actions are affected by others ○ Cross cultural psychology  Investigates similarities and differences in psychological functioning in and across different cultures • Expanding psychology'sfrontiers ○ Evolutionarypsychology  Considers how behavior is influenced by our genetic inheritance from our ancestors ○ Behavioral genetics  Seeks to understand □ How we inherit certain behavioral traits □ How the environmentinfluences whether we actually display such traits □ How the environmentinfluences whether we actually display such traits ○ The education and careers for a psychologist  PhD □ Doctorof philosophy  PsyD □ Dr. of psychology  Master's degree  Bachelor's degree ○ Careers  Administrator  Serve as counselor  Providing direct care Module 2 - A Science Evolves: the past, present, and future Sunday, August 28, 2016 9:24 PM • What are the origins of psychology? • What are the major approaches in contemporarypsychology? • What are psychology's key issues and controversies? • What is the culture of Psychology? • Plato - "What is the mind" • Descartes - "What is the relationship between body and mind?" • Methods borrowed from physical science ○ Medical research from 17th-19th century w/ mental experience ○ The mind could be studied with techniques that were already used to study the physical world, producing objective data to test theories • Psychology-1870's ○ Questions posed by philosophy 427 BCE • Roots of psychology ○ Aristotle (4th century bce) asked questions to understand relationship between body and psyche ○ Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) added 2 key elements to make psychology a science  Carefully measured observations  Experiments □ 1879 experiment-push button when a ball dropped (based on when they heard the ball hit the platform)  1/10 of a second  Push button when consciously aware of the ball dropping ◊ 2/10 of a second □ Edward Titchener's Structuralism  Like his teacher, Wundt, relied on "self-report" data. He had people engage in introspection, reporting on sensations and other elements of experience, in reaction to stimuli such as smell and feel of a flower  Tried to use introspective reports to build a view of the mind's structure. He called this view structuralism ◊ Structuralism: the goal was to break the mind down to smallest elements ○ Structuralism  Wilhelm Wundt  Focuses on uncovering the fundamental mental componentsof consciousness, thinking , and other kinds of mental processes  Introspection- procedure used to study the structure of the mind in which subjects are asked to describe in detail what they are experiencing when they are exposed to a stimulus ○ Criticisms of structuralism  Introspection is not scientific  People had difficulty describing some kinds of inner experiences ○ These drawbacks led to developmentof newer approaches ○ Structuralists tried to understand how the mind works, but did not have an overarching theory of why the mind works as it does ○ William James (1842-1910)studied human thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and asked:  What function might they serve?  How might they have helped our ancestors survive?  Influenced by Darwin's origin of species (evolutionarypsychology) ○ Functionalism  William james  Concentrated on what the mind does and the role of behavior in allowing people to adapt to their environments ○ Gestalt Psychology  Hermann Ebbinghaus & Max Wertheimer  Focuses on the organization of perception and thinking in a whole sense rather than on the individual elements of perception • The PsychodynamicPerspective:Understanding the inner person ○ Psychodynamicperspective  Sigmund Freud  Behavior is motivatedby unconscious inner forces over which the individual has little control ○ Behavioral Perspective  John B. Watson  B.F. Skinner  Suggests that observable, measurable behavior should be the focus of study • The Cognitive perspective: Identifying the roots of understanding ○ Cognitive Perspective-focus on how people think, understand, and know about the world  Information processing Module 5 - Neurons Friday, September 2, 2016 10:06 AM • What are the basic elements of the nervous system? • How does the nervous system communicate electrical and chemical messages from one part of to another? • Neurons - nerve cells, the basic elements of the nervous system ○ Consist of a cell body that contains a nucleus ○ Physically held in place by glial cells which  Provide nourishment to neurons and insulate them  Help repair damage  Support and speed up functioning ○ Distinctive feature of neurons  Ability to communicate with other cells  Transmission of information across relatively long distances ○ Parts of the neurons  Dendrite- cluster of fibers at one end of a neuron that receives messages from other neurons  Axon- part of the neuron that carries messages destined for other neurons  Terminal buttons- small bulges at the end of axons that send messages to other neurons  Myelin sheath- protective coat of fat (glial cells) and protein that wraps around the axon • How Neurons Fire ○ Neurons follow an all-or-none law: rule that neurons are either on or off ○ Resting state- state which there is a negative electrical charge of about -70 millivolts within a neuron ○ Action potential- electric nerve impulse that travels through a neuron's axon when it is set off by a "trigger", changing the neuron's charge from a negative to positive • Speed of transmission ○ Speed at which an action potential travels along an axon is determined by the:  Axon's size  Thickness of the myelin sheath ○ Neurons differ in terms of  Quickness of an impulse moving along the axon  Potential rate of firing ○ Intensity of a stimulus determines how much of a neuron's potential firing rate is reached • Where Neurons Meet: Bridging the Gap ○ Synapse: Space between 2 neurons where the axon of a sending neuron communicates with the dendrites of a receiving neuron by using chemical messages ○ Neurotransmitters: chemicals that carry messages across the synapse to the dendrite (and sometimes the cell body) of a receiver neuron ○ Types of chemical messages  Excitatory messages: makes it more likely that a receiving neuron will fire and an action potential will travel down its axon  Inhibitory messages: prevents or decreases the likelihood that a receiving neuron will fire ○ Every Neuron is not capable of receiving the chemical message carried by a neurotransmitter  Successful chemical communication is possible only when a neurotransmitter fits precisely into a receptor site ○ Neurotransmitters remaining at the site of the synapse lead to:  Receiving neurons awash, in a continual chemical bath  Producing constant stimulation or constant inhibition of the receiving neurons  Effective communication across the synapse would no longer be possible ○ Reuptake: reabsorption of neurotransmittersby a terminal button • Acetylcholine - neurons that instruct muscles to contract • Dopamine- dopamine circuits support anticipation of rewards, motor control, and controlled cognition • Serotonin- used in brain areas that regulate sleep cycles, mood, memory, and learning Ch. 2 Page 1


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