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Human Anatomy I Histology Notes

by: Katelyn Farris

Human Anatomy I Histology Notes BIO 2440

Marketplace > William Carey University > Biology > BIO 2440 > Human Anatomy I Histology Notes
Katelyn Farris

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These notes cover the main tissue types of the body including: Epithelial Tissue, Connective Tissue, Muscle Tissue, and Nervous Tissue. These notes also cover subtypes of each type of tissue for ex...
Human Anatomy I
Mr. Griffis
Class Notes
anatomy, Biology, Histology, tissues




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katelyn Farris on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 2440 at William Carey University taught by Mr. Griffis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy I in Biology at William Carey University.


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Date Created: 09/05/16
Histology Histology (Tissues) -Histology: the study of tissues -Tissues are groups of similar cells bound together and perform a particular function -Tissues are composed of living cells and may include extracellular, non-living material called: Matrix -Major Types of Tissue: 1. Epithelial 2. Connective 3. Nervous 4. Muscle Epithelial Tissue -thin sheets of tissue that cover and protect -this type of tissue can regenerate and regrow -general characteristics: -mostly cells, almost no extracellular matrix -covers surfaces inside and outside the body -attached to a basement membrane -cells are tightly packed and bound to each other -avascular Classification of Epithelial Tissue -By number of cell layers: 1. One layer: Simple 2. More than one layer: stratified -By cell shape: 1. Flat: squamous 2. Cubed: cuboidal 3. Taller than they are wide: columnar Simple Squamous -one layer and flat -function: allows passage of substances -locations: air sacs of the lungs, lining of all blood vessels, and also forming the walls of capillaries Simple Cuboidal -one layer and cubed shaped -function: filatration -location: kidneys, glands, ventricles of the brain Simple Columnar -one layer of column shaped cells -function: absorption, secretion -location: most of the digestive tract (beginning of stomach to the rectum) -also include microscopic finger-like structures on top surface called microvilli -microvilli increases the surface area Pseudostratified Columnar -appears to be many layers of cells but is really a single layer of column cells -location: most of the respiratory tract (trachea to lungs) -function: protection, secretes mucus that has a cleansing effect -special features: 1. cilia: short hair-like projections -moves things 2. Mucous Glands -secretes mucous Transitional Epithelium -can be many layers or be only a few -location: urinary bladder -function: expansion or contraction Stratified Squamous -multi layers of flat cells -function: protection against abrasion and water loss -location: the outer skin (epidermis), lines the inside of the mouth and anus and vagina Epithelial Tissue forms -Hair -Glands (sweat glands, endocrine glands, oil) -Nails -Skin Connective Tissue -diverse group -has cells and matrix -function: grow and maintain the tissue -connects tissues together Connective Tissue Types: Areolar (loose connective tissue) -cells are fibroblasts – make the extracellular matrix -loosely arranged in all directions -functions: holds water, and connects things together -connects skin to muscles underneath Dense Regular Connective Tissue -cells are all fibroblasts -fibers are mostly collagen -fibers are tightly pack and parallel -very strong and tough -function: form tendons and ligaments -found in tendons and ligaments Dense Irregular Tissues -cells are fibroblasts -collagen -fibers are in all directions -forms the dermis (the deep layer of the skin), and joint capsules -strong and tough Adipose Tissue (fat) -cells are called adipocytes -has very little matrix -function: long term storage for energy, cushioning, and insulation Reticular Connective Tissue -loose connective tissue -cells are called reticulocytes -fibers are called reticulofibers -fibers aren’t very strong but form a framework for cells to attach to -location: spleen, liver, lymph nodes Cartilage -Three types -cells are called chondrocytes -matrix is a gel-like material (rubbery) -functions: cushions and supports -cells are fixed and found in little pockets called Lacunae Cartilage Types: 1. Hyaline a. Has no visible protein fibers b. Matrix is translucent c. Forms: connects ribs to sternum, covers the ends of bones in joints, flexible part of the nose 2. Fibrocartilage a. Tightly packed protein fibers b. Located: forms intervertebral discs, and the pubic symphysis 3. Elastic Cartilage a. Elastic fibers b. Flexible part of the ear Bone -cells are called osteocytes -matrix is a solid -cells are located in spaces called lacunae -Two Types: 1. Compact bone: solid; forms the thin outer layer of bone 2. Spongy bone: porous; forms the inner layer of bone -The compact bone keeps the bone strong while the spongy bone gives it area for storage but keeps it light Blood -matrix is a liquid -made of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets -transports substances throughout the body Muscle Tissue -contracts to shorten and move things -has proteins called contractile proteins (proteins are inside the cells) -Three Types: 1. Skeletal Muscle Tissue 2. Cardiac Muscle Tissue 3. Smooth Muscle Tissue Skeletal Muscle -voluntary muscle -moves the skeleton -cell shape is cylindrical -all skeletal muscle cells have multiple nuclei per cell -striated (striped); highly organized Cardiac Muscle -involuntary muscle -forms the heart muscle: Myocardium -cell shape is cylindrical but branched -most cells have one nucleus but occasionally some have 2 or 3 -striated -intercalated discs Smooth (Visceral) Muscle -muscle in the digestive tract -spindle shaped or tapered ends -always only one nucleus per cell -not striated -involuntary Nervous Tissue -Forms the brain, spinal cord, and nerves -Two major cell types: 1. Neurons - send nerve impulses 2. Neurological - maintain health of neurons


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