Microbiology Chapter 5 Notes
Microbiology Chapter 5 Notes BIO 2600
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katelyn Farris on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 2600 at William Carey University taught by Dr. Cunningham in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at William Carey University.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
Chapter 5 notes The History of Eukaryotes -Evidence suggests evolution from prokaryotic organisms by symbiosis -Organelles originated from prokaryotic cells trapped inside them-the endosymbiotic hypothesis *Insight 5.1 *Profile of Eukaryotic Cell pg. 126 *Figure 5.6 Mitosis Kingdom Fungi -100,000 species divided into two groups -Macroscopic fungi (mushrooms, puffballs, gill fungi) -Microscopic fungi (molds, yeasts) -Majority are unicellular or colonial; a few have cellular specialization Microscopic Fungi -Exist in two morphologies: -Yeast – round ovoid shape, asexual reproduction -Hyphae – long filamentous fungi or molds -Some exist in either form – dimorphic – characteristic of some pathogenic molds Fungal Nutrition -All are heterotrophic -Majority are harmless saprobes living off dead plants and animals -Some are parasites, living on the tissues of other organisms, but none are obligate - Mycoses – Fungal infections -Growth temperature 20-40 degrees C -Extremely widespread distribution in many habitats Fungal Organization -Most grow in loose associations or colonies -Yeast – soft, uniform texture and appearance -Filamentous fungi – mass of hyphae called mycelium; cottony, hairy, or velvety texture -Hyphae may be divided by cross walls – septate -Vegetative hyphae – digest and absorb nutrients -Reproductive hyphae – produce spores for reproduction *Pictures on pg. 137 Chapter 5 notes Fungal Reproduction -Primarily through spores formed on reproductive hyphae -Asexual reproduction – spores are formed through budding or mitosis; conidia or sporangiospores *Figure 5.18 *Figure 5.19 Fungal Reproduction -Sexual reproduction – spores are formed following fusion of two different strains and formation of sexual structure -Zygospores, ascospores, and basidiospores -Sexual spores and spore-forming structures are one basis for classification Fungal Classification -Kingdom Eumycota is subdivided into several phyla based upon the type of sexual reproduction: 1. Zygomycota – Zygospores; sporangiospores and some conidia 2. Ascomycota – Ascospores; conidia 3. Basidiomycota – Basidiospores; conidia 4. Fungi that produce only Asexual Spores (Imperfect) *Figure 5.20 *Figure 5.21 Saccharomyces cerevisiae – baker’s yeast, ale production Saccharomyces bayanus – wine production Pneumocystis pneumonia: The most frequent opportunistic infection seen in AIDS patients Candida albicans – yeast infection Stachybotrys: “Black mold” *Figure 5.22 Cryptococcus neoformans Roles of Fungi -Adverse impact -Mycoses, allergies, toxin production (aflatoxins) -Destruction of crops and food storages -Beneficial impact -Decomposers of dead plants and animals Chapter 5 notes -Sources of antibiotics, alcohol, organic acids, vitamins -Used in making foods and in genetic studies *Pg. 143 and Table 5.3 Kingdom Protista -Algae – eukaryotic organisms, usually unicellular and colonial, that photosynthesize with chlorophyll a -Protozoa – unicellular eukaryotes that lack tissues and share similarities in cell structure, nutrition, life cycle, and biochemistry Algae -Photosynthetic organisms (Produce large proportion of atmospheric O2) -Contain chloroplasts with chlorophyll and other pigments -Microscopic forms are unicellular, colonial, and filamentous -Macroscopic forms are colonial and multicellular -Cell wall -May or may not have flagella -Most are free-living in fresh and marine water – plankton -Provide basis of food web in most aquatic habitats Pathogenic Algae -Dinoflagellates can cause red tides and give off toxins that cause food poisoning with neurological symptoms Protozoa -Diverse group of 65,000 species -Vary in shape, lack a cell wall -Most are unicellular; colonies are rare -Most are harmless, free-living in a moist habitat -Some are animal parasites and can be spread by insect vectors -All are heterotrophic – lack chloroplasts -Cytoplasm divided into ectoplasm and endoplasm -Feed by engulfing other microbes and organic matter Protozoa -Most have locomoter structures -Flagella -Cilia -Psuedopodia Protozoa -Exist as trophozoite – motile feeding stage -Many can enter into a dormant resting stage when conditions are unfavorable for growth and feeding – cyst Chapter 5 notes -All reproduce asexually, mitosis or multiple fission; many also reproduce sexually – conjugation *Figure 5.27 Mastigophora -Primarily flagellar motility, some flagellar and amoeboid; sexual reproduction -Trypanosoma: sleeping sickness and Chagas disease -Giardia: giardiasis (“beaver fever”) -Trichomonas: STD Sarcodina -Primarily amoeba; asexual by fission; most are free-living -Entamoeba histolytica: amebic dysentery Ciliophora -Possess cilia; trophozoites and cysts; most are free-living, harmless -Paramecium Apicomplexans -Motility is absent except male gametes; sexual and asexual reproduction; complex life cycle – all parasitic -Unusual life cycle normally involving 2 hosts: 1. Intermediate host (asexual stage) 2. Definitive host (sexual stage) – typically humans -Plasmodium: malaria *Figure 5.33
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