CRJ 260 Chapter 2 Book Notes Reading pg. 38-49 60-65
CRJ 260 Chapter 2 Book Notes Reading pg. 38-49 60-65 CRJ 260
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Bishop on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRJ 260 at Lenoir-Rhyne University taught by Dr. Robert Stallings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at Lenoir-Rhyne University.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
CRJ 260 Chapter Two Book Notes Week 3 (9/6/169/8/16) Chapter 2: The Nature and Extent of Crime Reading p.3849 & 6065 How is Crime Defined? p.4043 Consensus View behaviors that become crimes are those that are essentially harmful to a majority of citizens and have been controlled or prohibited by the existing criminal law criminal law: a set of rules, codified by state authorities, that expresses the norms, goals, and values of the vast majority of society. It represents the consensus of the public’s opinion of right and wrong. social control function Conflict View criminal law is created and enforced by those who hold political and economic power and is a tool used by the ruling class to control dissatisfied havenot members of society Interactivist View criminal law is structured to reflect the preferences and opinions of people who hold social power in a particular legal jurisdiction and use their influence to shape the legal process moral entrepreneurs: wage campaigns to control behaviors they view as immoral and wrong crime: full definition on p. 43 All the views differ but they generally agree: 1. Criminal law defines crime 2. Definition of crime is constantly changing and evolving 3. Social forces mold the definition of crimes 4. Criminal law has a social control function *concept summary chart on p.43* What are All the Different Categories of Crime? p.4349 Violent Crime expressive violence: acts that vent anger, rage, or frustration instrumental violence: acts designed to improve the financial or social position of the criminal 1. Gang Violence (p.44) a. number of gangs has increased about 36% in the past decade b. reason for the increase: emergence of gangs in rural and suburban areas 2. Multiple Murders (p.44) a. mass murderer: kill many victims in a single violent attack b. spree killers: spread murderous outburst over a few days or weeks c. serial killer: kill over a long period of time but typically assume a “normal” identity between murders 3. Intimate Violence (p.4445) a. physical dangers from people with whom they are close with; spouse, dating partners, relatives b. child abuse: any physical or emotional trauma to a child for which no reasonable explanation can be found 4. Hate Crimes/Bias Crimes (p.45) a. violent acts directed toward a particular person or toward the members of a group merely because the targets share a discernible racial, ethnic, religious, or gender characteristic Property Crimes (p.4546) 1. Theft Offenses a. Larceny (p.46) b. Receiving stolen property c. Extortion d. Embezzlement e. False pretenses f. Forgery g. Uttering 2. Property Damage/Invasion a. Arson b. Criminal mischief c. Trespassing d. Burglary (p.46) e. Certain cybercrimes Public Order Crimes (p.4748) Victimless Crimes: behaviors that are illegal because they run counter to existing moral standards 1. Prostitution a. Engaging in sexual acts for money or compensation b. Ehooking: sexually advertising on internet sites 2. Substance Abuse strong links between alcohol and crime: 1. crime causes drug abuse 2. drug abuse causes crime 3. both crime and drug abuse are caused by some other common factor 4. drug users suffer social and personal problems Economic Crime (p.4849) 1. WhiteCollar Crime violations of rules that control business enterprise a. Income tax evasion b. Credit card fraud c. Bank fraud …etc *full list on p.48 in definition* corporate crime: crime committed by a corporation a. Antitrust violations b. Price fixing c. False advertising organized crime (p.49) Crime Trends p.60 1. Violent Crime 1.2 million crimes are being reported each year 394 per 100,000 1 million fewer today than in 1991 Was 758 per 100,000 Increase of about 0.7% between 2011 and 2012 2. Property Crime Burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, and arson have declined about 14% from 20032012 1991: peak of 13 million crimes reported 5,000 per 100,000 Currently: 9 million per year 2,900 per 100,000 3. Victimization Ages 12 and older experienced about 7.6 million violent and 19.7 million property crime victimizations 4. SelfReporting (p.6164) *What the Future Holds p.65*
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