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Bio 02, Week 2 Lecture Notes

by: Cecilia Hernandez

Bio 02, Week 2 Lecture Notes Bio 002

Cecilia Hernandez
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These notes cover The Cell Theory, Properties of Cells, Size of Cells, Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic Cells, Organelles, and Model Organisms. These lecture notes are from Tuesday, August 30th, 2016 and...
Dr. Kamal Dulai
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cecilia Hernandez on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 002 at University of California - Merced taught by Dr. Kamal Dulai in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO MOLECULAR BIOLOGY in Biological Sciences at University of California - Merced.

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Date Created: 09/05/16
BIO-02 INTRODUCTION TO MOLECULAR BIOLOGY LECTURE #2- TUESDAY, AUGUST 30 , 2016 Topics: 1) Cell Theory 2) Properties of cells 3) Size of cells 4) Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic Cells 1. Cell Theory:  All living organisms are composed of 1 or more cells  Cells are the smallest units of life  New cells come from pre-existing cells 2. Properties of Cells:  Must have cells  Use energy  Interact with the environment  Maintain internal environment  Grow and develop  Evolve  Relate to other species 3. Size of Cells:  1 m = 10 mm 6  1 m = 10 ????????  1 m = 10 nm 4. Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic Cells:  Eukaryotic cells:  Size: 10μm - 500μm (Are bigger than prokaryotic cells)  Has a nucleus  Domain: Eukarya  Kingdom: Plants, Animals, Protist, and Fungi  Divides through Meiosis or Mitosis  Contains enclosed organelles  Prokaryotic cells:  Size: 0.5μm – 20μm  No nucleus  Domain:  Bacteria: causes disease  Different DNA for ribosomal RNA  Archaea: Extremophiles- “lovers of extremes”  Live in extreme conditions such as high salt content, acidity, high methane level, and high temperatures (Hyperthermophiles).  Cell Shape…  For Bacteria: o Rods and helical shapes  For Archaea: o SpheresCoccus o RodsCoccobacillus o Comma- ShapedVibrio o Spiral shaped & flexibleSpirochete o Spiral shaped & rigidSpirillum  Lack a cytoskeleton  Divide by binary fission  DNA is a single circular molecule  No membrane enclosed organelles LECTURE #3- THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1 , 2016.ST Topics: 1.) Organelles 2.) Models of Organisms 1. Organelles:  Nucleus:  Inside it has chromosomes and a network of proteins called the nuclear matrix  Nuclear Envelope:  A double membrane that encloses the nucleus  Mitochondria:  Found in eukaryotic cells  Makes ATP  Contains folds creating an increase in Surface Area  Contains their own DNA and divides  Chloroplasts:  ONLY found in plant cells  Captures sunlight and converts it to sugar  Carry out Photosynthesis  Contains the green pigment chlorophyll that makes the plant green  Contains their own DNA  Mitochondria and Chloroplast contain their own DNA & thought to have evolved from bacteria  Internal Compartments:  Golgi Apparatus:  Modification, sorting, and secretion of lipids & proteins  Lysosomes:  Found in animal cells that breakdown macromolecules  It also involves the digestion of substances that are taken up from outside the cell & releasing nutrients Endocytosis  Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER):  Site of detoxification and lipid synthesis  Example: Smooth ER helps break down Alcohol  Rough ER:  Studded with ribosomes  Site of protein sorting and secretion  Ribosomes:  Site of polypeptide synthesis  Peroxisomes:  Involves in the breakdown and synthesis of organic molecules  Breaks down harmful molecules such as hydrogen peroxide  Transport Vesicle:  Used to move molecules inside the cell  Cytosol:  It’s outside the membrane bound organelles but inside the plasma membrane  Cytoskeleton:  Provides organization to the cell and helps with cellular movements  Cytoplasm:  The cell’s ability to import raw materials  Exports the useful substance & waste products  Plasma Membrane:  Controls the movement of the substance (Into and out of the cell)  Site of cell signaling 2. Models of Organisms:  E. coli:  Small and rod shaped cell  Lives in the human gut & other vertebrates  Grows rapidly  Brewer’s Yeast:  Also known as S. Cerevisiae  Small, single-celled fungus  Contains chloroplast but not mitochondria  Produces rapidly  Purpose for studying yeast- to gain a better understanding of the cell division cycle  Arabidopsis (Model Plant):  Learning about the three domains (Bacteria, Archaea, & Eukarya)  Studying a particular plant helps on learning about other plants  Fruit Fly:  Purpose- providing proof that genes are in fact carried on chromosomes  Learning more about human development & disease  Study Human beings & their cells:  Kept in controlled environment  Exposed to hormones & growth factors


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