Geology and Human affairs 1014
Geology and Human affairs 1014 GEOL 1014 - 0-61920
Popular in Geology and Human Affairs Lecture
Popular in Geology
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ann McCarty on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 1014 - 0-61920 at Oklahoma State University taught by Priyank Jaiswal in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Geology and Human Affairs Lecture in Geology at Oklahoma State University.
Reviews for Geology and Human affairs 1014
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/05/16
Week 3, Chapter 3 and 4Online Exam Friday through sunday Minerals and Rocks 1. What is a mineral?: - Naturally occurring solid earth material. - naturally formed - Mainly be a solid - chemical formula - characteristic crystalline structure. - Atoms and Elements: - geochemistry: study of chemistry of earth. - natural distribution of chemical elements in nature. - Conceptual Model of an Atom - Figure 3.2 pg. 77 - Table 3.1 pg 76 - Trace elements: environmental important, but found in small amounts. - electrons are arranged in shells around nucleus. - ion: atom that has lost or gained electron. - cation: when atoms become positively charged due to losing an electron. - anion: when atoms become negatively charged due to gaining an electron. - Isotopes: what is an isotope? - Two atoms of same element w/ different # of neutrons in nucleus. - The same element can have more than one isotope - EX: 12/6 C, 13/6C, or C-12, C-13. - Mineral Chemistry Compounds. - Minerals and Chemical Bonding - covalent - ionic - van der Waals - metallic - Crystalline structure of minerals - crystalline: orderly regular repeating geometric structure. - Unit cell: smallest unit of geometric pattern in crystal. - Crystals have stacking unit cells. - crystal lattice: the way in which the unit cells stack. 2. Important Rock forming minerals -Figure 3.,7 pg 81 -Weathering helps with forming sediments and soils. -Table 3.2 pg 83 - Silicates - 94% of Earth, by volume, is oxygen. - Newtons= kg (gravity) - Quartz: - form of silicon dioxide - pure quartz is colorless (clear) - Feldspar: - most abundant rock forming minerals. Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg and/or figure #, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about. Week 3, Chapter 3 and 4Online Exam Friday through sunday - important in glass and ceramic industry. - two types - Alkali feldspars and plagioclase fledspars - Mica - formed from sheets of silicon-oxygen - have perfect basal cleavage. - cleave || to base of crystal, and peal into sheets. - Ferromagnesian Minerals - silicon, oxygen, iron, and magnesium. - dark in color. - Other important Rock-forming minerals - Oxides - Carbonate Minerals - Sulfide Minerals - Native Elements 3. Rock Cycle - weathering sediments transportation deposition accumulation Sedimentary Rocks deeply berried (heat, pressure, liquid) metamorphic rock. - Rock cycle and Plate Tectonics 4. Three Rock Laws: see slide 5. Igneous Rocks: - Crystalized from magma - Intrusive Igneous rocks: when it cools below surface - Batholiths (big) and Plutons (Puny): size is comparative to each other not what we would think of small. - Why Magma rises and intrudes other rocks - Extrusive Igneous Rocks: crystalize at or on surface of Earth. - from lava - Igneous rocks and environment - intrusive rocks are generally strong. - make good foundations - not prone to weathering - when it cools, it fractures - lava tubes are good for carrying ground water - Tuff: the kind that has low strength. (not good for building) 6. Sedimentary Rocks - 75 % of exposed rock is Sed. Rock. - Two types: - Detrital/ Clastic: formed form previously broken rock - grain size: shale, siltstone, sandstone, conglomerate. - these four make up 50% of Sed. Rocks - Table 3.3 pg 95 - sandstone and conglomerate are 25% of all Sed. Rocks - - Chemical/ Non-clastic: deposited when chemical/ biochemical processes cause minerals to form fr. Substances dissolved in water. - classified by mineral comp. - halite, gypsum, and limestone, Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg and/or figure #, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about. Week 3, Chapter 3 and 4Online Exam Friday through sunday - limestone makes up 25% of Sed. Rock, and most of chemical rock - Form: transported deposited cementation and/ compaction= rock - after depositional: physical and chemical cngs occur in response to more pressure and temp, but is not too much to result in metamorphic rock. - Sed. Rocks and Environ. - 3 concerns: - weak stone (some shale, mudstone and siltstone) can make it tricky to build. - Limestone isn’t always good to use due to easy weathering. - cementing materials for Detrital sed. Rocks can cause troubles due to weaknesses. 7. Metamorphic (meta) rocks: - Cngd by heart, pressure, and chemical liquid. - These plus igneous rocks = 90% of rocks on earth (crust part) - 3 major types: - High pressure, low temp meta’ism= subduction zones - high pressure, high temp, meta’ism= regional meta’ism - High temp low pressure meta’ism= contact meta’ism - Foliated Meta. Rock - EX: slate bc mineral grain is || to each other. - Non- foliated Meta. Rock - EX: Marble: due to either regional or contact meta’ism. - Meta. Rock and Environ. - Slate: usually good for foundation, good for chalk boards, pool table beds, roofing material, and decorative counters. - Foliation planes: weak planes 8. Rock Strength and Deformation - Strength= resistance to failure - Strength of rock can be different in different environ’s. - Elastic: after compression, able to return to original form. - Plastic: permanent cng. - Brittle: ruptures before plastic deformation. - Ductile: rupture after considerable plastic deformation. - Rupture of rocks can = earthquake. 9. Rock Structures - Fractures: - Joints: no displacement - faults: displacement happens - significance bc: conduits for fluids (pollutants) - zones for weakness in rocks - once there is a fracture, then weathering begins. - Folds: - rocks are shortened by lateral compression. - at surface, folds are eroded by running water. - series of folds: fold belt - Unconformities: gap in record - when erosion happens, erosion surface. Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg and/or figure #, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about. Week 3, Chapter 3 and 4Online Exam Friday through sunday - 3 types: - nonconformity: forms btwn older igneous and meta. Rocks and younger sed. Rocks. - Angular unconformity: younger sed. Are located upon erosion surface, where older is below and are tilted or folded. - Disconformity: formed as erosion surface btwn || layers of sed. rock. Chapter 4 notes from text Ecology and Geology 1. Ecology for Geologists: Basic Terms - - Ecology - - Species - - Population - - Ecological community - - Habitat - - Niche - What is an Ecosystem, and how does it work? - - Ecosystem - - ecosystem function - - Bioswall: helps undo what humans do to the environment. - Natural Service functions of Ecosystems - - Earth is suitable bc it provides for our needs. - - Earth protects itself to an extinct - - EX: plant roots help keep soil from being transported or lost. 2. Geology and Bio Diversity - -Biodiversity - Biodiversity of trees in N. America and Europe. - - the ways that these areas were effected was due to the amount of glaciation. - Community effects and Keystone Species: How are these concepts related to Geology? - - EX: Yellowstone national Park - Stream processes and Ecology: story of MT. Streams, Elk, and Wolves in Yellowstone - - due to erosion, the water can become too thick for some water animals and cuase them to get sick or die. - Coastal geology, Kelp, urchins, and sea otters - There are also other factors such as rising ocean temp. that are hard to predict the exact outcome. - Factors that increase or decrease Biodiversity - What factors increase Biodiversity?: - - A diverse niche can attract many species - - Catastrophes influence biodiversity due ot creating new habitats. - - extreme environments can cater to one side and not the other. - - constants need to stay constant - - the way in which things adapt to the times - - rain drop to Mt. It all effects biodiversity - What factors Reduce Biological Diversity? Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg and/or figure #, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about. Week 3, Chapter 3 and 4Online Exam Friday through sunday - - extreme environments can do this due to being able to support one or the other. - - abnormal happenings. - - transformation of earth natural or otherwise. - - pollution - - habitat simplification - - intrusive species - - restricting migration of plants and animals. - Human Domination of Ecosystem. - - rts of extinction have increased in our time line. - The golden Rule of the Environment: Geologic Perspective all about timing - - make a pact with earth using golden rule. - What can we do to reduce the human foot print on Environ. - 3. Ecological Restoration - Ecological restoration: Process of altering a site or area w/ objective of reestablishing indigenous historical ecosystems. - even though humans can not completely undo the damage that we have caused, we can try to recreate most of the variables of the original setting. - Big Three: - hydrologic process: surface water and groundwater - soils and rocks: microorganisms in soil - vegetation: cover material on land and wetlands. 8.29.2016 Online Exam this Friday-Sunday! There are three types of Rocks: igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic. 1. Common Igneous Rocks Classification Composition Composition Composition Texture Felsic Intermediate Mafic Intrusive Granite Dorite Gabbro Extrusive Rhyolite Andesite Basalt - Figure 3.15 pg 88. - Formed by texture and comp. - Igneous rock weather deposition sediment buried/uplifted Melted/ back on surface. 2. Sedimentary Rocks - Common. - Formed at the surface environment conditions and the ocean. - About 75 % of all rocks exposed at the surface - Records of historic (landscape and climate) information, which is what is interesting about it. - Individual Beds/layers: Law of original horizontality - The reason that we cannot find this information in Igneous rocks is bc they are being used up before the information can be extracted from them. Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg and/or figure #, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about. Week 3, Chapter 3 and 4Online Exam Friday through sunday 3. Clastic Sedimentary (Sed.) Rocks - Compacted and cemented from detrital sediments - Formation processes: Transportation, deposition, compaction, and cementation - EX: how are reefs formed?: over time, more and more carbonates (skeletons) grow together, particle size also plays a major role. - Fossil-fuel bearing rock - Shale: The most abundant clastic rocks. 4. Non-clastic Sed. Rock - Includes carbonates - Precipitated from chemical solutions and/or accumulated chemical, biological matter - Classified based on composition and texture - what and how it is makeup is. - Limestone: The most abundant nonclastic sedimentary rocks - Common texture: Crystalline, microcrystalline, skeletal, oolitic, massive 5. Common Sed. Rocks - Table 3.3a pg 95 - Clastics: th - fingernail= 1/10 of mm thick. - conglomerate (gravel), sand, silt, shale (clay) - Non-clastics: - Limestone, chalk, chert, Gypsom, Rocksalt, Diatomite. - The place that MIB is filmed: salt flat. 6. Sed. Structure and Environ. - Describes texture and compositon - Stratification: Law of original horizontality, law of supposition - Not true, just assumption made in geology. - Cross-bedding: Movement direction of ancient currents: - way that sed. Is deposited= texture. - Fossil content: Environment setting (continental, marine, or transitional) - Fine-grained clastic rocks and limestone in humid region: Very weak rocks causing environmental problems 7. Rock that was passed around - Igneous, exposed, air bubbles, extrusive. 8. Metamorphic Rock - Changed rocks from preexisting rocks under solid state - Changes in mineralogy and rock textures - Take any rock (Igneous or Sed.), cook it with extreme heat, pressure and with the presence of liquid and it will cng texture and comp. - This process is called Metamorphosis. - Agents of change (caused by): Temp, pressure, and chemically active fluid - Records of Earth’s dynamic processes: Tectonic movement and igneous intrusion 9. Metamorphic rock texture: - Foliation: Preferred alignment of platy mineral particles - Clastic: shale and clay. - Non-clastic: comp and texture - Slaty, schistosity, gneissic banding Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg and/or figure #, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about. Week 3, Chapter 3 and 4Online Exam Friday through sunday - Typically classified by texture: Slate, phyllite, schist, gneiss - Nonfoliation: Random arranged and interlocked mineral particles - Fine grained, coarse grained - Typically classified by composition: Marble, quartzite - Rock cycle - Figure 3.13 pg 87 Rock formed w/in earth Rock formed outside of Earth/ Surface Particles are bigger Particles are smaller Iron rich Iron depleted Intrusive Extrusive 10.Fundamental Rock Laws: - Three fundamental laws in understanding the relationships of rocks and the earth history - The law of crosscutting relationships: Rocks are younger than the ones that it cuts ____________________________________ (sed. Rock, older) Igneous Magma (young) - The law of original horizontality: Sedimentary rock layers nearly horizontal under normal condition (they lay flat) - The law of superposition: Rocks become progressively younger towards the top in an undisturbed and undeformed rock sequence (young ones on top.) 11.Rocks and Environ. - Inappropriate use for construction materials - -Helping v. hurting environ via humans - - EX: Singapore: buying other island to use their sand for their own purposes. Damages other islands. - Fossil fuel exploration and extraction from rocks - - keeping econs a float, but GHG are becoming more of a problem. - - OK’s Earthquakes are due to this by not getting the natural resources correctly. - Reservoir rocks for fuels, groundwater, as well as contaminants - Rock foliation and strength: Site stability for large facilities (nuclear power plant, dams, airports, etc.) 12.Rock structure and Strength - Figure 3.30 Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg and/or figure #, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about. Week 3, Chapter 3 and 4Online Exam Friday through sunday - Strain line: law of elastic limit - The curved line show at what point the obj has surpassed that Elastic limit. - Called Hooks law. 13.Rock Structure - Deformation in response to stress - Brittle deformation: Fractures, joints, and faults - Ability to see it break - has a very low strain limit. - Conduits for fluids, possibly pollutants - Weak surfaces for landslide, earthquake, and failures of infrastructure - Ductile deformation: Folds - Mountainous terrain - Related to active plate boundaries, linked to environmental problems - Unconformity: Contact structure of rocks - Way that Rocks touch each other. - Representing geologic time gap in geologic records, ancient erosion surface - Types: Nonconformity, angular unconformity, and disconformity - Clues for ancient geologic environment - Ore-bearing unconformity surface, (e.g., uranium ore) - End Of Chapter 3 in class. 8.31.16 Answers to study questions: 3.01:A, 3.02:A, 3.03:B, 3.04:C, 3.05:C, 3.06:C, 3.07:A, 3.08:B, 3.09:A, 3.10:D Chapter 4: 1) Case History - Dams can hinder this. 2) Ecology and Geology Linkage - Think of living things as plants and animals - - nothing lives in isolation. 3) Fundamental Isolation - Gets bigger and bigger - Everything that is loving Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg and/or figure #, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about. Week 3, Chapter 3 and 4Online Exam Friday through sunday - Biosphere: all living things at surface including below water and into the crust a little. - - all the way to basin - - in crystalline area, no life exists due to too much pressure and Temp for life to thrive. 4) Species - Invasive: - - EX: pythons: it because popular to have as pets, so long as you don't bother them too much. They are not venomous, so they came as exotic pets. 5) Ecosystems - Ppl/countries are now every cautious for what is brought in/taken out in order to keep invasive species out. 6) Types of Ecosystem - We now have technology to change the ecosystem how we want it to be. - EX: growing mangos in OK - HC: completely fabricated by humans - Oklahoma has highest % of inland shore. 7) Natural Service Function of Ecosystem - Oxygen V. CarbonDioxide - It is a coexisting relationship that brings mutuality btwn plants and humans 8) Biodiversity - EX: Manhattan: if no construction and no humans. - - there would increase species population - - use to be bio diversely rich. - - deer (more) v. lions (lions) 9) Geology and Bio diversity - Will determine everything 10) Keystone Species: - Humans ruin everything in nature: systems - Figure 4.5 pg XX - Glaciatial depositioin and retreat - Figure 4.9 pg XX 11) Factors to increase bio diversity - There has to be a cycle cng - EX: seasons cng. If a plant is moved to a new area where the seasons do not change like the previous climate. - Needs buffer time. 12) Human Domination - Have dominated almost all lands - Effected cng in bio chemical cycles th - Ppl talk about mas extinctions (5 major) but we have seen the 6 bc humans destroying every humans will become a part of 6 . th 13) Case study: sea wall and Biodiversity - Stop ocean fr. Coming to land - Water level is not constant - Figure 4 B pg XX Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg and/or figure #, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about. Week 3, Chapter 3 and 4Online Exam Friday through sunday 14) Golden Rule of Environ. - Reduce the human footprint - Impression left on environ by humans/living things. 9.2.16 15) Ecology Restoration - Process of altering a site or area with the objective of reestablishing indigenous, historical ecosystems - - Making into original state - River restoration: Channel restoration, dam removal to reunite fragmented river ecosystems - Beach and coastal sand dune restoration - Reshaping the land, drainage, and vegetation patterns - Ecosystem: dynamic system including living things and changes over time. - Rissimmee River: a meandering river - - Prior to 1940, wide floodplain with diverse wetland plants, wading birds, waterfowl, fish, and other wildlife - - 1942–1971: Two-thirds of the floodplain drained, degraded ecosystem functions and reduction of birds and fish population - - 1992: Restoration project authorized by the Congress - - 12 km straight channel restored to a meander - Everglades: - - 11,000 species of plants - - 100s species of birds, fish, marine mammals - - 70 threatened or endangered species - - Great ecological system - - restoring is not easy - - many departments are involved in this process - - humans need to be more aware of what they are using - - Sugarcane must be in the right soil. 16) Important Restoration Aspects - Table 4.1 - “sau based on historical info, tat is what we think this swamp should look like. - Setup goals for 3m, 6m, 1 yr, 5yr, 10yr, 20yr. - Follow the remaining steps. - Hydrologic process: surface water and ground water - Soil and Rock: Geological conditions (rock and soil type, slope, landscape) - Vegetation: The cover materials use on land and wetland - Socio-economic shareholders: Interests and start points - Science: Restoration goals and endpoints 17) Biological Engeneering in Geologic Restoration - How to use technology to manipulate nature. 18) Critical Thinking: - EX: Egypt: Nile: ppl live there (millions of ppl), positive impast for nature is trying to get more water from groundwater. Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg and/or figure #, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about. Week 3, Chapter 3 and 4Online Exam Friday through sunday Chapter answers: 4.01:C, 4.02:B, 4.03:D, 4.04:B, 4.05:C, 4.06:A, 4.07:C, 4.08:D, 4.09:C, 4.10:D Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg and/or figure #, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'