New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Cell Structure

by: Jhonny Fuentes
Jhonny Fuentes
Virginia Tech

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Hey Class! As you may know, I just signed up for an Elite Notetaker for StudySoup. I just uploaded a detailed set of notes for this class. Feel free to reach-out-to me if you need a study pa...
Principles of Biology 1105
Dr. Watkinson
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Principles of Biology 1105

Popular in Biology

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jhonny Fuentes on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 81094 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Watkinson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology 1105 in Biology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Similar to 81094 at Virginia Tech


Reviews for Cell Structure


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/05/16
Jhonny Fuentes LESSON 4 Cell Structure -Prokaryotic cells: include archaea and bacteria -Unicellular, small, lack of internal compartments, have cell wall, may have capsule or pili (hair)or flagella (tail) -Common features of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells: -common organelle: ribosome (to synthesize proteins) [universal organelles] -DNA is the genetic material (all cells have a nuclei or nucleus)Control of gene expression -Plasma membrane separates cell interior (cytoplasm) from extracellular environment -Eukaryotic cells: animal and plan[key: Y=YES, N=No] Animal Plant Nucleus Y Y ER & Golgi Y Y Lysosomes Y ? Peroxisomes Y Y Mitochondria Y Y Chloroplast N Y Vacuole N Y Cell Wall N Y -Cytoplasm vs cytosol Cytoplasm Cytosol plasma membrane -Nucleus: surrounded by two phospholipid bilayer membranes= nuclear envelope -Nucleolus (inner core): region where intensive synthesis of ribosomal RNA is taking place -Function: protect DNA, separate RNA synthesis from DNA synthesis Jhonny Fuentes -Ribosome: are the cell’s protein synthesis machinery (the most complex molecular assemblies found in the cells) 2 subunits: ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and proteins -messenger RNA (mRNA) carries coding information from DNA and transfer RNA (tRNA) which carries amino acids. ribosomes use the info in mRNA to direct the synthesis of a protein -Endoplasmic Reticulum: functions: protein synthesis, lipid synthesis, Ca++ storage, detoxification -The rough ER is a site of protein synthesis (glycoproteins) -The smooth ER has multiple roles: 1) store intracellular Ca2+ (which keeps the cytoplasmic level low) [ex: triggering muscle contraction in muscle cells] 2) modification of foreign substances to make them less toxic (ex: liver enzymes of the SER carry out detoxification) -Golgi apparatus -sorts and packages proteins functions: carbohydrates processing, synthesis of cell wall/ ECM (extracellular matrix) Proteins and lipids are manufactured on the rough and smooth ER membranes are transported into the golgi apparatus and modified as they pass through it. Then the vesicles on the transfuse of the golgi diffuse to other locations in the cell, distributing the newly synthesized molecules to their appropriate destinations -Exocytosis and the endomembrane system - (chain of command) ER > Golgi > Lysosomes or plasma membrane or environment Lysosomes-contain digestive enzymes (component of the endomembrane system -contain high levels of degrading enzymes which catalyze the rapid breakdown of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. -are optimally active at acid pH (5) -are activated by fusing with a food vesicle produced by phagocytosis lysosomes eliminate other cells that the cell has engulfed by phagocytosis (white blood cell) -are formed from vesicle budding of the Golgi Eukaryotic cells contain a variety of enzymes-bearing membrane-enclosed vesicles called micro bodies (are a diverse category of organelles) -Peroxisomes: enclose a variety of enzymatic reactions -functions: oxidation of fatty acids, biosynthetic reactions, detoxification also contain the enzyme catalase, which breaks down hydrogen peroxide into its harmless constituents- water and oxygen -Vacuoles : different types in different cells -functions: water balance, control of osmotic pressure, storage of small molecules, storage of waste products, macromolecule degradation -The membrane surrounding the vacuole is called the tonoplast b/c it contains channels for water that are used to help the cell maintain its tonicity, or osmotic balance -Mitochondria (the powerhouse of the cell) function: metabolize sugar to synthesize ATP, reproduce by binary fission -two membrane structure: matrix (inner compartment), inter membrane space (outer compartment), circular DNA, ribosomes -the numerous contiguous layers are called cristae Jhonny Fuentes -Have their own DNA (essential for its role in oxidative metabolism) Chloroplasts: use light energy to synthesize ATP and sugars -reproduce by binary fission -three-membrane structure (grana close compartments of stacked membranes, circular DNA, ribosomes -The theory of endosymbiosis > -accounts for the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts -significant evidence for concept but details not resolved Cytoskeleton -a network of protein fibers that supports the shape of the cell and anchors organelles to fixed locations -is a dynamic system, constantly assembling and disassembling 3 types of fiber compose the cytoskeleton: 1) Actin Filaments (aka microfilaments): important for cell shape, muscle contraction, and cell adhesion -the polymers of these linear filaments are flexible but still strong, resisting crushing and buckling while providing support to the cell. 2) Microtubules: conveyer belts inside the cells. They move vesicles, granules, organelles like mitochondria, and chromosomes via special attachment proteins. They also serve a cytoskeletal role. Structurally, they are linear polymers of tubulin which is a globular protein -are the largest cytoskeletal filaments in cells 3) Intermediate filaments: -Function: is to provide mechanical support for the plasma membrane where it comes into contact with other cells or with the extracellular matrix. Unlike microfilaments and microtubules, intermediate filaments do not participate in cell motility (motion) Cytoskeletal filaments: polymers of protein subunits Jhonny Fuentes -dynamic due to non covalent reactions -assembled from actin monomers, tubulin dimmers, and various monomers --Animal extracellular matrix (ECM):providing support, segregating tissues from one another, and regulating intercellular communication. The extracellular matrix regulates a cell's dynamic behavior. -Cell wall: composed of cellulose. Cellulose is a structural carbohydrate and is considered a complex sugar because it is used in both protection and structure. The plant cell wall consists of three layers. Each layer has its own unique structure and function -Primary wall, Middle Lamella, secondary wall,


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.