New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Human Physiology Chapter 1

by: Jolie Ortiz

Human Physiology Chapter 1 BIOL 240-A01

Jolie Ortiz

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This is only chapter one later chapters will be posted later on
Human Physiology
Dr. Megan Knoch
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Human Physiology

Popular in Department

This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jolie Ortiz on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 240-A01 at Indiana University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Megan Knoch in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.

Similar to BIOL 240-A01 at IUP


Reviews for Human Physiology Chapter 1


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/05/16
Chapter 1 Introduction of Physiology Chapter Preview  1.1 Organization of the Body: From cells to system  1.2 Homeostasis: A central organizing Principle of Physiology  1.3 The Diabetes Epidemic Body Functions Are Integrated  Proper functioning of one part depends on the function of a different part or parts  Examples: o Muscle requires oxygen provided by erythrocytes in blood that are manufactured in bone marrow o Erythrocyte synthesis requires erythropoietin, which is secreted by the kidneys o Oxygen is extracted from air breathed in by the lungs o Lung expansion is controlled by the nervous system o Blood is pumped by the heart Organized of the Body  Levels of organization o Cell o Tissue o Organ o Organ system -The body has more than 200 different cell types -Cells (and tissue) -Classified into four groups o Neurons o Muscle cells o Epithelial cells o Connective tissue Neurons and Nerve tissue  Location: brain, spinal cords  Function: Send signals -Transmit signals for communication and muscles and other organs -branches receive or transmit messages -Receive info from receptors -some neurons process info Muscle Cells  Characteristics: o Skeletal Muscle cell: located attached to bones o Smooth muscle cells: gastrones, blood and every organ vessel functions o Cardiac muscle cells: located in the heart Epithelial Cells and Epithelium  Can find them in skin, blood vessels, digestive system  Filtering: sweep what you inhale from your lungs; barrier -Epithelium: sheet-like layer of cells -External body surfaces -Hollow organs or vessels or glands -Functions as a barrier and transport Connective Tissue (where are they found) -Blood cells: Tendents and ligaments Bone cells: Blood Fibroblasts: Bone EVERYWHERE Organs and Organ systems  Organs: composed of at least two tissue types performing specific functions  Organ system: Collection of organs performing a particular task Body fluids and compartments -Body is divided into compartments  Contain fluid  Separated by semipermeable epithelial membranes  Transport occurs between compartments Total Body Water TBW= total body water= 42L  Consists of water and dissolved materials Body fluids and compartments ICF= intracellular fluid (compartments)= 28L  Fluid inside cells (cytoplasm) Body Fluids and compartments ECF=extracellular fluid= 14L  Fluid outside cells but within body  Subdivisions Homeostasis -Ability to maintain a relatively constant internal environment -components of the internal environment that are regulated  Temp  Volume  Composition -Requires organ systems integration Homeostasis: Terms -Regulated variable: speed of car -Examples: blood glucose concentration, blood pH, plasma levels of sodium  Set point -expected value of a regulated variable; o Core body temp: 37c o Blood glucose (sugar)= 100mg/dL o Blood pH: 7.4  Error signal o Difference between the value of the set point and the value of the regulated variable Homeostasis: Components  Structure enabling homeostasis o Examples: -Receptors -Integrating centers -Effector -Signals Types of Diabetes  Diabetes mellitus o Type 1 or type 2  Gestational Diabetes o Subclass of DM type 2 o Affects 4% pf pregnant women o May develop DM type 2 post pregnancy  Diabetes insipidus o Insipid urine o Unrelated to DM o Affects antidiuertic hormone (vasopressin)- aquaporin 2 system TYPE 1: auto amune disorder (have to have insalin) TYPE 2: adult (non independence insalin) do not require insalin to survive Diagnosing Diabetes  Fasting plasma glucose test o 60-100 mg/dL:Normal o 100-125 mg/dL: Pre-diabetes o >125 mg/dL: Diabetes  Oral glucose tolerance test o <139 mg/dL: Normal o 140-199 mg/dL: Pre-diabetes o >200 mg/dL: Diabetes  Hemoglobin o Estimates blood glucose for 2-3 mins Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus  Variable symptoms o Dehydration o Fatigue, lethargy, coma o Eyes, kidney microvasculature o Heart, stomach o Neuropathy o Erectile dysfunction o Atherosclerosis Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus  Maintain blood glucose at less than 120 mg/dL reduces incidence of eye disease, kidney disease and nerve damage  Diet  Insulin  Sulfonylureas and melitnides o Stimulate pancreatic beta cells to secrete insulin  Thiazolidinediones o Enhance effects of insulin o Decrease liver glucose production The Diabetes Epidemic  Diabetes: Greek origin, meaning "to siphon"  Mellitus: Latin origin, meaning "honey sweet"  Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease o Blood glucose levels are elevated o Urine glucose are elevated o Plasma volumes are affected  Signs and symptoms: o Excessive thirst o Massive fluid loss  Diabetes mellitus after every organ system Body mass (BMI)- a predictor for developing NIDDM  Measures weight relative to height  Used to define obseity o Overweight: BMI 25-29 o Obese:BMI 30-39  Morbid obesity BMI> 40 (More than 100 lb overweight) Types of Diabetes  Diabetes mellitus type 1 o Lack of insulin o Accounts for 5-10% of all diabetes mellitus cases  Diabetes mellitus type 2 o Impaired response to normal insulin levels  Pre-diabetes o Blood glucose 100-125 mg/dL o Affects 79 million Americans o Most likely to develop DM types 2 in 10 years


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.