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Chapter 26- Bacteria and Archaea

by: Aneri Patel

Chapter 26- Bacteria and Archaea 2108K

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Biology > 2108K > Chapter 26 Bacteria and Archaea
Aneri Patel

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This is the first chapter that will be on the exam next week on Monday
Prinicples of Biology II
Dr. Jonathan B Sylvester
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aneri Patel on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2108K at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Jonathan B Sylvester in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Prinicples of Biology II in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 09/05/16
**= professor put a lot of emphasis on these things 08/24/2016 Chapter 26­ Bacteria and Archaea - Extent= currently alive  o Node= same thing as a common ancestor o Plesiotrophy ancestral trait ( a trait that the Root of the Tree of Life has but is  not shared towards the tip of the tree) o Apomorph derived trait(s) - Bacterial Cells= Have no nucleus, no inner organelles or inner packaging o However, they still have ribosomes, DNA and cytoplasm o They do everything a eukaryote does but in a common area and are not packaged  or separated o Bacillus (spirilli)= rod  Extremely small because, they rely on diffusion (high to low) to do  everything; becomes less reliable across a larger area     **Horizontal Gene Transfer (prokaryotes) o only have one circular piece of DNA and every single gene is VERY important  and it cannot accumulate mutations; they stream­line everything to replicate as  efficiently as possible so they have very short DNA to make it easier to do o EVERYTHING is on ONE chromosome unlike eukaryotes which have multiple  chromosomes o we (eukaryotes) accumulate many mutations  they occur in not coding DNA which do not cause anything bad to happen   the few that are good mutations we take those and reproduce those genes  to get genetic diversity o *Plasmid DNA= optional DNA that prokaryotes have the option to turn it off or  exchange with others so as to not pass those onto their offspring (completely  optional) o **All bacterial cells have a mechanism on how to exchange plasmids with other  bacteria: 1. **Conjugation (most common)­ **DONOR MEDIATED a. Donor gives genes to recipient which then makes the recipient  into a donor also b. Pilus= short or straw like projection of cytoplasm between the  donor and Recipient c. Virulent= possessively or aggressively takes over the host; 1  t part to becoming antibiotic resistant  2. **Transformation­ **RECIPIENT MEDIATED a. Recipient takes DNA from the dead Donor and gets keeps it for itself; the recipient scavenges the dead donor which gives of  parts of its genes after its death to search of anything that can  be of use for the recipient [Type here] **= professor put a lot of emphasis on these things b. If the donor was close to becoming antibiotic resistant, then  they recipient instead of starting all over will be that much  closer to having antibiotic resistance c. Most likely cause of antibiotic resistance 3. **Transduction (viruses) **NOT MEDIATED BY ANYONE a. Virus infects into a bacterial cell and then continues to divide  and grow along with the bacterial cell b. However before leaving the bacterial host cell the virus takes  some of the host’s DNA which then gets incorporated with the  viral DNA.  c. As a result, when the virus infects other bacterial cells it is not  virulent and cannot infect other cells causing them to live and  not die; bacteria are hardwired to try out any DNA so they will  try this out too - Three Domains: o Eukarya o Archaea o Bacteria - **DIFFERENCES Characteristic Archaea Bacteria Eukarya  Cell contains a nucleus No No No and other membrane­ bound organelles DNA occurs in a  Yes Yes No circular form Photosynthesis with  No Yes Yes Chlorophyll Capable of growth at  Yes Yes No temperatures greater  than 80C Capable of  Yes No No methanogenesis Capable of Nitrogen  Yes Yes No fixation Capable of  Yes Yes No Chemoautotrophy - Without Archaea and Bacteria, we would not be able to do the Nitrogen and Sulfur cycle  and build DNA and proteins - Carbon Cycle= Microbial Mats o Prokaryotes are more affective at cycling carbon than eukaryotes are o Dependent on availability of light and oxygen  Oxygenic photosynthesis­ [Type here] **= professor put a lot of emphasis on these things  Cyanobacteria­ do photosynthesis like plants (bluish­greenish)  Take light and use it to build sugar, similar to plants  Precursors to chloroplast  Anoxygenic photosynthesis­  Chemosynthetis bacteria­ cycle all the sulfur in our environment  but do not produce oxygen   purple; use dihydrogen sulfide(H2S)  - How do Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes acquire energy? o Eukaryotes on ONLY the top layer  They have to have light and oxygen & ONLY TWO wasy to acquire  energy  Aerobic respiration (cellular respiration)= e.coli, humans  Oxygenic photosynthesis= eukaryotes, plants and single celled  eukaryotes do this o Prokaryotes= OXYGEN Poisonous to prokaryotes  Autotrophic photosynthesis  Anoxygenic photosynthesis  Chemoautotrophy (similar to anoxygenic photosynthesis but does not use  Light)  Heterotrophic metabolism  Anaerobic respiration (does not use oxygen to accept electrons to use it)  Fermentation­ can be done by both Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes but uses  iron  **Prokaryotes can build ecosystems where carbon does not reach 08/26/2016 - Energy Source: o Sun: phototrophs o Chemical compounds: chemotrophs - Carbon Source: o Inorganic compounds, CO : autotrophs 2 o Organics compounds, glucose: heterotrophs - Photoautotrophs energy­sun o carbon­inorganic, CO )2 - Chemohetertrophs energy­chemical compounds o Carbon­organic compounds  - Photohetertrophs ONLY PROKARYOTES o energy­sun o Carbon­organic compounds [Type here] **= professor put a lot of emphasis on these things  Like plants get sunlight and make use as energy for  electrons and ATP production - Chemoautotrophs ONLY PROKARYOTES o energy­chemical compounds o Carbon­ inorganic, CO 2 o Hydrothermal Vents= constantly spew out sulfur from the bottom  of the earth   Billions of chemoautotrophs around them splice sulfur and  use the energy released to produce ATP and NADPH  Primary producers are essentially everything that lives  around the vents by eating the bacteria or animals that pray  on the bacteria WITHOUT LIGHTS so not plants and algae  **Primary contribution prokaryotes make to the carbon  cycle is that they allow things to live in places where there  is no sunlight and carbon and recycle - Sulfur Cycle o This cycle would crash without Prokaryotes o Sulfates (SO ) [4ukaryotes use sulfates to build tissues]and Inorganic Sulfur  (H 2)  o Assimilation= turning inorganic sulfurs into organic sulfates that eukaryotes can  use for protein synthesis­ only Prokaryotes can do this  Plants do this by absorbing sulfur from the soil for nutrients­ humans eat  plants for their sulfur o Inorganic sulfur is extremely toxic to eukaryotes and can eat humans from the  inside out - Nitrogen Cycle (STRICTLY PROKARYOTES) o Nitrogen used in the synthesis of Proteins and DNA o Nitrogen fixation­ takes N  and2turns into Ammonia, NH 3 ­ ­ o Nitrification­ process prokaryotes use to turn ammonia to Nitrates (NO  & NO )­3 2 mostly bacteria and prokaryotes do this o Denitrification­ (ONLY PROKARYOTES) turning NO  & NO  to N 3 2­  2 o Legumes­ peanuts, soy beans, etc.   Get more than enough nitrogen from doing nitrogen fixation and  nitrification so they leak out nitrates into surrounding soil to help other  plants grow o Anammox­ NH  + NO 4N + 2H 2 (de2itrifi2ation)  Lots and lots of Archaeons give off nitrogen to help prevent nitrification  fixation from sucking all the Nitrogen from the atmosphere  ** Archaeons single handedly supply all the nitrogen in the world - **Cynobacteria o Archaea (­aeota)  Euryarchaeota­ [true archaea] most diverse group [Type here] **= professor put a lot of emphasis on these things  Thaumarchaeota­ cold temperature & aneammox reactions  Crenarchaeota­ heat lovers - Coevolution o Between prokaryotes and eukaryotes and how symbiotic relationships have been  useful that these two evolved together o **Read Case 5 on LaunchPad­ know MANY EXAMPLES OF COEVOLUTION  and the Differeneces.   o Fruit fly eggs­ if the female is infected then the female flies lay more female eggs  benefitting fruit flies cause a dramatic increase in the reproduction of females  because, they are the limiting factor and the bacteria alters the genes so that they  had more optimal area for the wolbachia o Humans have coevolved with many bacteria’s such are the surface of our skin [Type here]


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