Week 2, reading on chaper 2 of Herrick
Week 2, reading on chaper 2 of Herrick STRC 3336
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle Goldsborough on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to STRC 3336 at Temple University taught by Cynthia rogan de Remirez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Argumentation in Strategic Communication at Temple University.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
Michelle Goldsborough Argumentation Chapter 2: Herrick The Rise of Rhetoric: -originated in Syracuse around 467 B.C. -rhetorician Corax helped argue disputes. His system of teaching oratory was adapted by others. Sophists soon learned about his ways. The popularity of rhetoric had a lot to do with the dramatic changes affecting greek city-states, especially Athens. There was a cultural change from aristocracy to democracy. Sophists taught Greek citizens about verbal discourse and trained them in inventing arguments to large audiences. Rhetoric became a major aspect of culture and education. The Sophists: Orators, educators, and advocated Their course of study was on rhetoric, the art of logos which means both words and arguments. Many Sophists became famous and wealthy in Greece Besides speech making, they claimed to have taught arête, a greek term meaning virtue, personal excellence, and even the ability to manage ones personal affairs to succeed in public life. A natural leader. The sophists said their courses would teach students to be masters of persuasion over other people. Sophists employed the method of dialectic. This approach taught students to argue either side of a case. Endoxa-premises that were widely believed or taken to be highly probable. Dissoi logoi-contradictory arguments Kairos-related to dissoi logoi, meaning an opportune moment or a situation Sophists had their students memorize famous speeches or model speeches and compose their own. This method was known as epideixis-a speech prepared. The sophists were controversial- they were seen as dangerous because they were so good at persuading and they were so willing to teach others. Deceptive argumentation was long and widely associated with the sophists. Their schools were regarded as a public cuisance and worse. They were sometimes considered over paid parasites. Some charged enormous fees. Teaching persuasive language and being paid to do it angered some Athenians. Many sophists were also foreigners. Their habit of travel also was a concern. Their cultural relativism contributed directly to suspicion of these professional pleaders. The sophists developed a view of truth as relative to places and cultures. The 4 reason for controversy is due to the view on truth: truth was not to be found in transcendent sources such as the gods or a platonic realm of universal forms. Sophists believed that truth emerged from a clash of arguments. Lastly, they were controversial because they built a view of justice on the notion of social agreement or nomos. They advocated nomos as the source of laws in opposition to other sources such as themos or law derived from the authority of kings, physis or natural law, and platonic logos, a transcendent source of absolute truth. Three influential sophists: Gorgias: one of the greatest teachers, also known for his theory of rheotic. He had a three-part formula of skeptical philosophy 1. Nothing exists 2. If anything did exist we could not know it 3. If we could know that something existed we would not be able to communicate it to anyone else. Protagonas: Alleged first person to charge for lectures and is considered to be the first of the greek sophists. “Man is the meature of all things; of things that are not, that they are not; of things that are, that they are. Isocrates: taught that rhetoric should be used to advance greek ideas Aspasia: women did not have an easy time and were not recognized as full citizens. They were typically barred from speech making. Aspasia th was a female rhetorician of the 6 century-reputed to have taught the art of rhetoric to many including Socrates and invented the so called socratic method. She was a woman of slight mystery.
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