KIN 300 Scott Week 2 Ch 1: Part II and Ch 2: Part I lecture notes
KIN 300 Scott Week 2 Ch 1: Part II and Ch 2: Part I lecture notes KIN 300
Long Beach State
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalie Wong on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 300 at California State University Long Beach taught by Kristen Scott in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Biomechanics in Kinesiology at California State University Long Beach.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
KIN 300: Fall 2016 – Week 2 8/29/16 Natalie Wong Ch. 1 Part II – “Intro to Forces” ***Notes derived from Prof. Scott’s lecture PPT. I. Forces a. Definitions: Resultant = result of addition of 2 or more forces on an object (difference between added forces and existing forces) Net = the sum of all external forces acting on an object Colinear = forces that share the same line of action; paralleled forces (ex: both horizontal forces, both vertical forces, etc.) Concurrent = forces that do not share the same line of action, but do go through the same point (ex: perpendicular forces, one acting horizontally and one acting vertically) b. Colinear Force Addition When forces run on the same axis/line, they can be added. - Direction Values Up & Right = (+) Down & Left = () Ex: 200N 400N 100N 550N Net Force = 200 400 +100 +550 = 50N c. Concurrent Forces Cannot simply be added to find net force! Organize forces into right angles/rectangle (if possible) Then use right triangles and their respective properties to solve Ex: 70N 400N 400N 480N +10N 70N +480N 10N 2 2 2 (60N) + (80N) 2 C 3600 + 6400 = C 80N C=net force sqr rt (10,000) = C = 100N KIN 300: Fall 2016 – Week 2 8/29/16 Natalie Wong 60N II. Types of Force Systems a. Force System = net force/all forces acting on an object b. Force Composition = Finding a resultant, or adding components of a force system together Ways in which to calculate force composition - Addition - Graphical technique - Pythagorean’s Theorem - Trigonometric technique c. Force Resolution = finding components of a force system III. Math a. Right triangles Pythagoreans’s Theorem: if you know two sides of a right triangle, you can determine the length of the third side - a + b = c 2 Trigonometry: if you know at least one side of a right triangle and at least one angle (other than the 90 deg angle), you can solve for the other angle and side lengths - Trig Ratios Sin = opposite/hypotenuse Cos = adjacent/hypotenuse Tan = opposite/adjacent hyp. - Inverse Trig Ratios (ex: arcsin or sin ) 1 opp. Ө = sin (opp/hyp) Ө 1 Ө = cos (adj/hyp) Ө = tan (opp/adj) adj. IV. Static Equilibrium = when all forces acting on object make a net force of 0N ***Practice problems at the end of Ch 1 on Pg.4650; Answers Pg.400 KIN 300: Fall 2016 – Week 2 8/31/16 Natalie Wong Ch. 2 Part I – “Intro to Linear Mechanics” ***Notes derived from Prof. Scott’s lecture PPT. I. Kinematics a. Need to know space and time i. Space = where an object starts and stops ii. Time = how long the object is in motion b. Quantities: i. Position – Distance and Displacement ii. Speed and Velocity iii. Acceleration c. Remember! Biomechanics is subdivided into Kinematics and Kinetics, each of which is further subdivided into linear and angular motion. II. Linear vs Angular Motion a. Linear (Translational) Motion = all points of an object move the same distance, in the same direction, over the same amount of time. i. Rectilinear = all points of object move in a straight line Ex: skiing, passively riding a bike, or any other activity or movement that requires the body to stay in a stationary position while in locomotion in a straight line ii. Curvilinear = all points of object move in a curved path Ex: hangliding, spread eagle in figure skating, or any other activity or movement that requires the body to stay in a stationary position while in locomotion in a curved path b. Angular (Rotational) Motion = all point of object move through the same angle, in the same direction, over the same amount of time. i. Movement occurs about a joint axis ii. Ex: Knee curl, biceps curl, etc III. General Motion a. Describes most complex movements because combo of linear and angular motion i. Angular motion at the joints linear motion of the rest of the body Ex: driving a wheelchair, running, jumping over an obstacle b. Position = an object’s location in space (x,y) i. Distance = length of true path an object has traveled Unit = meters (m) Scalar quantity = only has magnitude ii. Displacement = straight line from the object’s initial starting to position to its end position Unit = meters (m) Vector quantity = direction (+ or ) and magnitude c. Speed vs Velocity i. Speed = distance traveled over time Units = meters (m)/second (s) or kilometers (km)/hour (h) Scalar quantity = only magnitude KIN 300: Fall 2016 – Week 2 8/31/16 Natalie Wong Can be calculated as average speed or instantaneous speed ii. Velocity = displacement over time Units = m/s Vector quantity = magnitude and direction (+ or ) Can be calculated as average or instantaneous velocity d. Acceleration = change in velocity over time i. Unit = m/s 2 ii. Can be calculated as average or instantaneous acceleration iii. Vector quantity = magnitude and direction (+ or ) IV. Equations: a. Displacement (d) = final position – initial position = P P f i b. Speed (s) = distance (l) / time (t) = l/t c. Velocity (v) = displacement / time = d/t = (p – p)/f i d. Acceleration (a) = ∆v/t = (v – v)ft i
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