Class Notes 9-1-16
Class Notes 9-1-16 PSYC 33000-01
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mina Hubert on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 33000-01 at Ithaca College taught by Brandy Bessette-Symons in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Cognition in Psychology at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
Cognition Notes 9-1-16 Decline of Behaviorism language acquisition Skinner (verbal behavior: 1957): operant conditioning - believed all language was learned through imitation and reinforcement Chomsky (1959): inborn biological program - argued against Skinner - how can words just be imitation when young children say words/things they’ve never heard as well as incorrect verbalizations that have not been rewarded. EX: “I swimmed” The Cognitive Revolution Information processing approach (IP) - computers came out in the 50’s and contributed to the IP approach - computers work like this: Input input processor memory unit arithmetic unit output - People thought that if this is how computers work, maybe that’s also how the mind works st Cherry (1953): 1 flow chart of the mind - Dichotic Listening Task (in power point prinout) Participant wears headphones Different sounds are coming out each speaker (left and right ear) Experimenter tells participant to listen to Sound A and asks the participants to repeat what they heard Broadbents filter (process) model of attention (based on Cherry’s research) Input filer detector to memory The Role of Models in Cognitive Psychology Two Main Models 1. Process Models - Processes involved in cognitive mechanisms (visual in powerpoint slides) - Boxes represent specific processes and arrows indicate connections between processes 2. Stuctural Models - Physical structures (visual in powerpoint slides) - Boxes represent specific structures and lines indicate connections between processes CHAPTER 2 Cognitive Science Interdisciplinary study of the mind - Psychology - Computer Science - Cognitive Anthropology - Linguistics - Neuroscience - Philosophy Goals: finding ways to study and understand the inner workings of the mind Cognitive Neuroscience is the “physiological basis of cognition” Levels of Analysis Chemical Neurons Brains Structures Groups of Brain PERCEPTION processes Activated Activated Structures Activated - What level to Study? Neurons Patterns of Firing Areas of Activity Inter Connection of Areas The Nervous System Consists of Cells - Camillo Golgi (1843-1926) Nerve Net: thought all neurons touched and were connected Neuron Structure The Nervous System Consists of Individual Cells - Santiago Cajal (1852-1934) Neural Development Studied chicks as they developed instead of studying fully developed cells Neural Doctrine Neurons are NOT all connected (they are individual) Synapses Neural Circuits Sensory Neurons Neurons directly influence by environment (our senses) Effected by external environmental stimuli Won the 1906 Nobel prize Building Blocks of the Nervous System - Neurons: cells specialized to receive and transmit information in the nervous system (about 100 billion in the brain) Consist of 3 main parts: 1. Dendrites: receive information from other cells 2. Cell Body (Soma): gives neurons energy 3. Axon: Transmits information to other neurons How Neurons Communicate - Action Potential Adrian (Nobel Prize 1932): 1 recording from single neuron Action potential is a flip in the polarity of a cell (takes about 1 ms) Hodgkin and Huxley (1963) studied neurons in giant squid to measure action potential The size of action potential remains constant The RATE OF FIRING is what’s measured Low intensity= slow firing High intensity= fast firing Hyperpolarization means more negatize Depolarization means making more positive which means reaching action potention As intensity increases the rate of firing increases Intensity of action potential is related to the intensity of the stimulation Also includes magnitude of experience and quality of experience
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