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BSC 216- Week 1 Notes

by: Alexia Acebo

BSC 216- Week 1 Notes BSC 216

Alexia Acebo
GPA 3.7
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About this Document

Notes from lectures 1 & 2 included!
Human Physiology & Anatomy II
Austin Hicks
Class Notes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 216 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Austin Hicks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 109 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology & Anatomy II in Biology, Arts and Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 09/05/16
Lecture 1 CHAPTER 19: BLOOD • 8% of total body mass o Body’s ONLY liquid connective tissue FORMED ELEMENTS+ PLASMA 1. Erythrocytes (RBC’s)- oxygen transport 2. Platelets- cell fragments that signal clotting 3. Leukocytes (WBC’s)- immune function and defense a. 5 TYPES, 2 Categories i. Granulocytes 1. Neutrophils 2. Eosinophils 3. Basophils ii. Agranulocytes 1. Lymphocytes 2. Monocytes Blood Plasma **Hematocrit- % vol. that is RBC’s • Erythrocytes= heaviest (~45%) • WBC’s & Platelets (~1%) • Plasma =remainder (~55%) WHAT does blood do??? 1. Transport oxygen, wastes, hormones 2. Protect against blood loss and infection 3. Regulate body temp., pH, fluid vol. Plasma▯ ~92% H2O -serum: remaining fluid when blood clots and solids are removed -identical to lpasma but fibrinogen absent 3 MAJOR CATEGORIES OF PLASMA PROTEINS 1. Albumins: sallest, most abundant 2. Globulins: antibodies 3. Firinogen and other clotting proteins ERYTHROCYTES -non-nucleated, no organelles primary functions: • Carry oxygen from lungs to cell tissues • Pick up carbon dioxide from tissues and bring to lungs Hemoglobin- binds reversibly with oxygen ▯4 protein chains called globulins • Each polypep chain boud to ring-like heme group • Each heme group- 1 iron atom • Each iron atom binds reversibly with 1 iron HOW is blood produced??? (adults: 400 bil. Platelets, 200 bil. RBCs, 10 bil. WBCs/day) • Hemopoiesis- prod. Of blood, formed elements • Tissues of adults in red bone marrow o ALL formed elements arise from stem cells (some become CFUs) in the bone marrow ERYTHROCYTE PRODUCTION Red Bone Marrow▯HSC▯Erythrocyte CFU▯Proerythroblast **Must maintain RBC count to avoid hypoxemia or viscosity -negative feedback control ERYTHROCYTE DEATH Trapped in spleen sinous▯macrophage digest▯Hemoglobin breakdown▯Bilirubin liver▯ recycle ANEMIAS (decrease in Blood O2 carrying capacity… cause: kidney failure or dietary deficiency 3 MAIN causes: 1. Decreased hemoglobin 2. Decreased hematocrit 3. Abnormal hemoglobin Nutritional Anemias 1. Iron deficiency 2. Pernicious anemia Consequences 1. Tissue Hypoxia 2. Reduced bloos osmolarity 3. Reduced blood viscosity LEUKOCYTES -complete cells, less abundant than RBCs, in bloodstream for few hrs, COMBAT DISEASE Diapedesis: travel out of capillaries into tissues Positive Chemotaxis: Amoeboid motion 2 TYPES Granulocytes • Neutrophils: Phag. Bacteria • Eosinophils: Parasite destuction • Basophils: histamine Agranulocytes • Lymphocytes: destroy cancer cells • Monocytes: Dif. Into macrophages Leukopoieses= production of WBCs -formed by HSCs▯CFU’s 1. Myeloblasts: form granulocytes 2. Monoblasts: form monocytes 3. Lymphoblasts: all lymphocytes **circulating WBCs DO NOT stay in blood stream Lecture 2 Platelets & Hemostasis -platelets are fragments NOT cells -Hematopoietic Stem Cell doubles but never divides Platelet functions: • Secrete Vasoconstrictors that help prevent blood loss • Stick together to form platelet plugs • Secrete clotting factors • Form clot dissolving enzyme • Phag. And destroy bacteria HEMOSTASIS Step 1: Vascular Spasm Step 2: Platelet Plug Formation Step 3: Coagulation (Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic) -dif. In how they start… end the SAME Step 4: Clot Retraction Step 5: Thrombolysis BLOOD TYPING AND MATCHING ▯matter of interactions between plasma poteins and erythrocytes ( antigens and antibodies) Antigens: Distinguish self from foreign Agglutinogens: antigens on sirface of RBC Antibodies: Bind & mark for destruction Aggultinins: antibodies in plasma !!!BLOOD TYPE determined by presence/absence of antigens on RBCs A▯A antigens B▯B antigens A&B▯ A & B antigens (RARE) O▯ no antigens (COMMON) Rh: indicated + or – Aka D antigen w/ = Rh positive, W/o= Rh negative ABO * Rh▯ 8 common blood types -antibodies are produced against antigens YOU DO NOT HAVE- ▯if opposite, AGGLUTINATION matching: antigens of donor, antibodies of recipient • O- =universal donor, HIGH DEMAND • O+= any positive blood group, somewhat universal • AB+= universal recipient • AB-= only negative, somewhat universal Rh+ and pregnancy▯ maternal antibody attack


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