NTR 213 Chapter 2 Notes
NTR 213 Chapter 2 Notes NTR 213
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by bjwall on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTR 213 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Dr. Seth Armah in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Nutrition in Nutrition at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
Chapter 2 – Guidelines for a Healthy Diet 2.1 Nutrition Recommendations Past and Present U.S. Recommendations Food guides used to translate nutrient-intake recommendations into food choices Food and Nutrition Board developed 1 set of recommendations for specific amounts of nutrients o Came to be known as Recommended Dietary Allowances Made recommendations on amounts of energy and on specific nutrients that were most likely to be deficient in people’s diets – protein, iron, Ca, vitamins A & D, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C. Intakes were based on amounts that would prevent nutrient deficiencies. Overt nutrient deficiencies are now rare in the US, but incidence of nutrition-related chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, and obesity has increased. Dietary Guidelines for Americans introduced in 1980 make diet and lifestyle recommendations that promote health and reduce risks of obesity and chronic disease, have been revised every 5 years. Early food guides have been evolved into MyPlate, which suggests amounts and types of food from 5 food groups to meet the recommendations of Dietary Guidelines. How We Use Nutrition Recommendations Nutritional Status – an individual’s health, as it is influenced by the intake and utilization of nutrients o Can be assessed by having individuals record or recall their food intake by using info about the amounts and types of food available to the population to identify trends in the diet. Information obtained from population health and nutrition surveys is also used to determine whether the nation is meeting health and nutrition goals, such as those established by Healthy People. o This set of health-promotion and disease prevention objectives is revised every 10 years, with the goal of increasing the quality and length of healthy lives for the population as a whole and eliminating health disparities among different segments of the population. Long-term goal: create social climate in which everyone has a chance to live long Assessing Nutritional Status 1. Determine typical food intake 2. Analyze nutrient intake 3. Evaluate physical health 4. Consider medical history and lifestyle 5. Assess with laboratory tests 2.2 Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are recommendations for the amounts of energy, nutrients, and other food components that healthy people should consume in order to stay healthy, reduce the risk of chronic disease, and prevent deficiencies. o Include 4 types of nutrient recommendations and 2 types of recommendations related to energy intake Nutrient Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) Adequate Intake (AI) Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) Energy Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) Recommendations for Nutrient Intake Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) – nutrient intakes estimated to meet the needs of 50% of the healthy individuals in a given gender and life stage group o Used to assess adequacy of a population’s food supply or typical nutrient intake; not appropriate for evaluating individual’s intake Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) – nutrient intakes that are sufficient to meet the needs of almost all healthy people in a specific gender and life-stage group Adequate Intakes (AIs) – nutrient intakes that should be used as a goal when no RDA exists. AI values are an approximation of the nutrient intake that sustains health o Based on what healthy people typically eat o Meant to represent amounts that most healthy people should consume over several days or even weeks s Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) - maximum daily intake levels that are unlikely to pose risks of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in a given gender and life-stage group o Dietary supplements and fortified foods may Recommendations for Energy Intake DRIs make 2 types of recommendations about energy intake: o Estimated Energy Requirements (EERs) – energy intakes that are predicted to maintain body weight in healthy individuals Provide estimate of how many calories are needed to keep body weight stable o Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs) – healthy ranges of intake for CHOs, fat, and protein, expressed as percentages of total energy intake 10-35% protein 45-65% CHO 20-35% fat Intended to promote diets that minimize disease risk and allow flexibility in food intake patterns 2.3 Tools for Diet Planning DRIs tell you how much of each nutrient you need, but don’t help you choose foods that will meet these needs. US government has developed the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and MyPlate. o DGA set of diet and lifestyle recommendations designed to promote health and reduce risk of overweight, obesity, and chronic disease in US population. o MyPlate is USDA’s most recent food guide. Divides foods into groups, based on nutrients they supply most abundantly, and illustrate the appropriate proportions of foods from each food groups that make up a healthy diet. Recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Provide evidence-based nutritional guidance to promote health and reduce prevalence of overweight and obesity and risk of chronic disease These recommendations designed for Americans 2 years of age and older Balancing calories to manage weight 2/3 of adults & 1/3 of children in US weigh more than they should Weight maintenance requires consuming the same # of calories as you burn. Losing weight requires consuming fewer calories than you burn. o This weight loss can be accomplished by reducing energy intake and increasing energy expenditure through exercise. Dietary Guidelines recommend enjoying your food but eating less of it. Foods and nutrients to increase Increase vegetables and fruit intake to at least 2 ½ cups per day and improve choices by selecting more fruits and fruit juices and eating variety of vegetables, especially dark-green and red and orange vegetables and beans and peas. Replaced refined grains with whole grains Increase intake of fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products Protein choices should include lean meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, beans and peas, soy products, and unsalted nuts and seeds Foods and food components to reduce Dietary Guidelines recommend reducing intake of saturated fat, cholesterol, and trans fat. Limit sodium intake to 2300 mg/day; 51 or older and those of any age who are African American or have hypertension, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease should limit sodium to less than 1500 mg/day Building healthy eating patterns No single diet that defines healthy Abundant in nutrient-dense foods – vegetables, fruits, whole grains; moderate amounts of a variety of high-protein foods; and are low in full-fat dairy products. More oils than fats and limit added sugars and sodium Nutrients should come primarily from food Food-borne illness – 48 million individuals in US every year and leads to 128,000 hospitalizations and 3000 deaths o Prevent by washing hands, rinsing veggies and fruits, preventing cross-contamination, cooking foods to safe internal temps, and storing foods safely MyPlate: Putting the Guidelines into Practice Can be used to plan a diet based on the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines o Fruits, veggies, grain, protein foods, and dairy ½ should be fruits and veggies ¼ grains ¼ protein foods Dairy should accompany meal o Balance calories to manage weight, increase foods that promote health, and limit nutrients that increase health risks MyPlate messages Emphasizes importance of proportionality, variety, moderation, and nutrient density in a healthy diet o Proportionality – eating more of some types of foods than others o Variety – no one food or food group provides all the nutrients and food components the body needs o Moderation – limiting portion sizes and choosing nutrient-dense foods to balance calories consumed with calories expended A Daily Food Plan Tells you how much food to eat from each food group Individual ingredients must be considered for like pizza, casseroles, stews Also includes recommendations about the amounts of oils o Oils and fats are liquid at room temp, come from plants and fish. Rich in unsaturated fats, which help protect against heart disease. o Solid fats are solid at room temp, such as butter, lard, and shortening. Provide saturated and trans fat and should be limited. Recommends 150 minutes of activity each week to balance food and physical activity and includes a calorie limit for empty calories from solid fats and added sugars. o Empty Calories – calories from solid fats and/or added sugars, which add calories to the food but few nutrients Examples: donuts, table sugar, soft drinks, candy Choice (Exchange) Lists Set of food group recommendations developed in the 1950s to plan diets for people with diabetes o Since then, expanded to planning diets for anyone who has to monitor calorie intake o Lists designed to meet energy and macronutrient criteria Provides useful tool whether you are controlling calorie intake for purposes of weight loss or CHO intake for purposes of diabetes management 2.4 Food and Supplement Labels Food Labels Since 1990, food labels have included a Nutrition Facts panel and an ingredient list. Nutrition Facts All food labels must contain a Nutrition Facts panel that lists the serving size and the # of Calories and the amounts of specific nutrients in that standard serving. For most nutrients, the Nutrition Facts panel also lists the amounts contained in a serving as a % of the Daily Value. o Daily Value – a reference value for the intake of nutrients used on food labels to help consumers see how a given food fits into their overall diet Ingredient List Presents contents of the product in order of their prominence by weight Optional on products that contain a single ingredient Nutrient content and health claims Food labels often contain nutrient content claims. These are statements that highlight specific characteristics of a product that might be of interest to consumers, such as “fat-free” or “low sodium.” Food labels are permitted to include a # of health claims. o Refer to a relationship b/n a nutrient, food, food component, or dietary supplement and reduced risk of a disease or health- related condition. All health claims are reviewed by the FDA o To carry a health claim, food must be good source of 1 of 6 nutrients and must not contain more than 20% of the Daily Value for fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, or sodium. o Emerging but not well-established evidence are called qualified health claims. Dietary Supplement Labels Dietary Supplement – a product sold to supplement the diet; may include nutrients, enzymes, herbs, or other substances o Examples: multivitamin pills, herbal elixirs, protein powders o Required to carry a Supplement Facts panel o Can also carry structure/function claims which describe the role of a dietary ingredient in maintaining normal structure, function, or general well-being. Example: “calcium builds strong bones” or “fiber maintains bowel regularity
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