PY 355- Week 1 Notes
PY 355- Week 1 Notes PY 355
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 355 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Craig Walter Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see General Experimenta Psychology in Psychology (PSYC),Arts and Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
Lecture 1 Chapter 1: Research in the Behavioral Sciences Aristotle -knowledge nativism v. empiricism innate v. learned Descartes -Monism vs. Dualism John Locke -conscious mind composed of elements ▯ no empirical support for any of these theories up n=until this pt., no way to determine accuracy Pioneers William Wundt st - founder of psych., “Principles of physiological psychology”, 1 lab, 1 sci. journal **empiricism: the use of systematic observation to draw conclusions -all researchers apply sci. methods to the study of behavior, thought and emotion Goals 1. Describe behavior 2. Explain behavior 3. Predict behavior !!Psychology is a science▯study of behavior and mental processes Basic V. Applied -primary difference= researcher’s purpose in conducting the research, not the nature of it -understanding phenomena v. finding solutions Knowledge about research methods: 1. Understand w/ relevance 2. More intelligent research consumer 3. Critical thinking 4. Authority Lecture 2 The Scientific Approach - Way to gain knowledge about behavior and mental processes NONSCIENTIFIC SCIENTIFIC - Observation Observation Intuitive Empirical Judgement based on feeling Judge directly Accept claims w/o evidence Skepticism Control Control Casual, controlled Systematic Inf. By personal bias Concepts Concepts Clear, specific Ambiguous Construct=concept Reporting Reporting Biased, subjective Unbiased, objective Personal impressions Separate obs. From influence Measures Measures Not valid/reliable Valid Inaccuracies/ inconsistencies Reliable Hypotheses Hypothesis untestable Testable Hypothesis not testable if : - No adequately defined constructs - Circular - Appeals to ideals **Theory: set of beliefs that serve as an explanation **Model: attempts to describe HOW concepts are related **Deduction: process of reasoning from a general proposition to specifics **Induction: hypothesis from collection of facts Testing Hypotheses - Methodological Pluralism o Using a variety of different methods/designs to test a theory - Strategy of strong inference o Test opposing predictions of 2+ theories simultaneously Definitions Conceptual definition- like dictionary, lack precision Operational definition- specifies how concept is measured/ manipulated Description - define, classify, catalogue, categorize events and their relationships - most PY research is nemothetic, not idiographic - most quantitative not qualitative !ALL sci. fields share a set of underlying principles 1. Systematic Empiricism 2. Public verification 3. Solvable problems **pseudoscience- claims of evidence that masquerade as science but violate the basic criteria of the scientific method ▯Characteristics - Nonsystematic, nonempirical evidence - No public verification - Unsolvable problems
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