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HRMA 1337, Week 2 Notes

by: Theresa Nguyen

HRMA 1337, Week 2 Notes Hrma 1337

Theresa Nguyen
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The hospitality and tourism industries are the largest and fastest-growing industries in the world. Now is a great time to pursue a career in the hospitality and tourism field because thousands of ...
Intro to Hospitality Industry
S. Barth
Class Notes
Introducing, Hospitality




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Theresa Nguyen on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hrma 1337 at University of Houston taught by S. Barth in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Intro to Hospitality Industry in Hotel and Restaurant Management at University of Houston.

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Date Created: 09/05/16
Chapter 1: Introducing Hospitality Hospitality through Ages  The word hospitality comes from hospice, an old French term meaning “to provide care/shelter for travelers.” Ancient Times  The Sumerians (what is now Iraq) were the first to record elements of hospitality as they provided locals and travelers taverns where they served beer, food, and provided a place to stay.  Between 4000 and 2000 B.C.E., early civilizations in Europe, China, Egypt, and India all had some elements of hospitality offerings, such as taverns and inns along the roadside. Greece and Rome  The Code of Hammurabi (circa 1700 B.C.E) made mention of tavern owners responsibilities.  Increased travel made some form of overnight accommodations necessary, and taverns and inns sprang up everywhere.  By the time Marco Polo traveled to the Far East, there were 10,000 inns, with the best in China. Medieval Times  Charlemagne established rest houses for pilgrims in the eighth century and innkeepers in Florence, Italy formed a successful guild in 1282 that had 86 members by 1290.  A stagecoach journey from London to Bath took three days with several stopovers at inns or taverns called ‘post houses.’  In the late sixteenth century, a type of tavern for commoners called an “ordinary” was serving food for a fixed price. Coffee Houses  Coffee and tea became popular in the sixteenth century and coffeehouses became a way of life.  With water being dangerous, these flavored drinks became popular very quickly. The New World  The “ordinary” as taverns were called in the early days of the American colonies, were gathering places for residents, to hold meetings and conduct business.  The tavern was an important part of the New World.  George Washington used the Frauncis Tavern as his Revolutionary War headquarters, and it still operates today.  Even future presidents owned and operated taverns as the new colonies were being established. The French Revolution  The French Revolution changed the course of culinary history as it was nobility that employed most of the country’s chefs.  With the elimination (literally) of the noble class, French chefs began the immigration to other countries and especially to the Americas.  Thomas Jefferson installed a French chef in the White House, which influenced interest in French cooking in the new colonies.  Many of the immigrant chefs found New Orleans and changed the culinary direction of the region with their style of cooking. The Nineteenth Century  In 1856, Antoine Carême published La Cuisine Classique, detailing numerous dishes and sauces.  This led to the re-invention of the restaurant and its classic fare.  By 1848, a hierarchy of eating places existed in New York City.  There was a restaurant, level of service, and price for everyone. The Twentieth Century  Several restaurant chains began in the 1900s, including the classic White Castle with its sparse décor yet popular menu.  In 1959 the Four Seasons opened as the first elegant American restaurant that was not French in style.  Following World War II, America took to the road and expanded rapidly with hotels, motels, fast food, and coffee shops.  With the expansion of air transportation, hotels and restaurants sprang up to meet the needs of the expanding nation.  In the 1980s, hospitality, travel, and tourism continued to increase dramatically.  The baby boomers began to exert influence through their buying power.  Distant exotic destinations and resorts became more accessible. The Twenty-First Century  The hospitality industry continues to mature with increased market segmentation and consolidation.  More people are traveling, especially from and to China, Brazil, and India.  The recession slowed the industry, but as we emerge from it, occupancies are up, along with revenue per available room.  Now companies are driving the margins to squeeze out a reasonable profit. Welcome to You, the Future Hospitality Industry Leaders!  The hospitality industry is one of the most fascinating, fun, and stimulating to work in, plus you get paid quite well and have excellent advancement opportunities.  The hospitality industry is one in which it does not take long before advancement opportunities come along.  A degree plus experience enables almost anyone with the service spirit to enjoy success.  The National Restaurant Association (NRA) forecasts a need for thousands of supervisors and managers in the hospitality and tourism industry.  The Pineapple Tradition - The pineapple is a symbol of welcome, friendship, and hospitality. - Imported from the West Indies, pineapples were often served to royal families and the elite. The Interrelated Nature of Hospitality and Tourism  The hospitality and tourism industry is the largest and fastest growing industry in the world.  An exciting aspect is that the industry comprises so many different professions.  Whether in direct contact with a guest (front of the house) or working behind the scenes (back of the house), the most challenging aspect of working in the industry is creating powerful impressions that have the ability to affect the human experience.  Restaurants fill the biological need to eat, as well as the need to socialize and to be entertained.  In managed services, food services are provided to institutional clients, meeting the needs of the guests as well as the client.  Studies show that as many as 57% of consumers now use the Internet to book their travel.  In fact, technology could be the thin line between a successful business and bankruptcy for many organizations.  Restaurants use more than 30 different technology applications to provide faster, more cost-efficient, and productive business operations for guests and staff.  Many studies already showed that high-speed Internet is one of the most important in-room amenities that enables guest satisfaction in a hotel. Characteristics of the Hospitality Industry  Open 365 days a year, twenty-four hours a day, the hospitality industry tends to work longer hours than most other industries.  Those in senior positions can expect to work 10-12 hours a day regardless of the time or day.  Due to the industry running twenty-four hours a day, it relies heavily on shift work.  Essentially there are four shifts, including 11 p.m. to 7:30 a.m., known as the graveyard shift.  The hospitality industry is in the business of providing guest satisfaction at a price.  The difficulty here is that the product is intangible; that is, the consumption and production occur at the same time, making them inseparable.  This helps to explain why the product is also perishable; that is, a room or meal not sold tonight cannot be saved and sold tomorrow.  The other unique characteristic of this industry is the perishability of our product.  For example, we have 1,400 guest rooms in inventory that are available to sell, but we only sell 1,200 rooms.  What happens with the 200 unsold guest rooms? Nothing!  We have permanently lost the revenue from these rooms.  One other unique characteristic of the hospitality industry to consider is the variability inherent within those who produce and consume.  In the hospitality industry, we are in business to make a return on investment for owners and/or shareholders and society.  People invest money for us to run a business, and they expect a fair return on their investment. Hospitality Industry Philosophy  It used to be that corporate philosophy focused on the manager’s ability to plan, organize, implement, and measure performance.  Today there is a more stringent shift toward managers counseling associates, giving them resources, and helping them to develop and think for themselves.  This shift has proven effective in that it promotes empowerment, and has strong ties to Total Quality Management (TQM).  Major changes include increased corporate ethics, morals, fairness, and equality.  Service Philosophy Is a Way of Life - “Spirit to serve” comes from deep-rooted values. - Service should be a commitment to continuous improvement and overcoming adversity. - Our culture influences the way we treat associates, guests, and the community, and that affects the success of everyone. Sustainable Hospitality  The concept of sustainability involves “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”  Sustainability is the ability to achieve ongoing economic prosperity while protecting the natural resources of the planet and maintaining an ideal quality of life for its people and future generations. Success in Service  To ensure success, one must also ensure guest loyalty.  Given that approximately 70% of the United States and Canadian economies and an increasing percentage of other countries are engaged in service industries, it is critical to offer guests exceptional service.  This is the age of service and, “we buy loyalty with service.”  A guest is anyone who receives or benefits from the output of someone’s work.  For success in service, it is necessary to: - 1. focus on the guest - 2. understand the role of the guest-contact employee - 3. weave a service culture - 4. promote high-touch instead of high-tech - 5. thrive on change.  Guest loyalty is the key.  Moments of Truth - Every hospitality organization encounters hundreds of moments of truth (guest encounters) every day. - Service commitment is a total organizational approach that makes quality of service as perceived by the customer. The Focus on Service  Guest service is a central focus of hospitality.  It is what hospitality is all about—what we do.  Our job, first and foremost, is to enhance the lives of those people (guests, passengers, etc.) to whom we are dedicated to serve.  Our job is to make the lives of others better in a small way or big way; it makes no difference.  Service and Total Quality Management (TQM) - In the area of service, TQM is a participatory process that empowers all levels of employees to work in groups to establish guest service expectations and determine the best way to meet or exceed those expectations. - TQM works best when managers are also good leaders. - The difference between TQM and quality control (QC) is that QC focuses on error detection, while TQM focuses on error prevention.  Career Paths - The career path of most individuals is not necessarily in a straight line. - The path is often a combination of paths such as food and beverage, rooms division, marketing, human resources, or finance and accounting. - Progression from department to department earns you the experience necessary for the next step.  Career Goals - If you are not sure which career path to pursue, that’s OK. - Now is the time to explore the industry to gain the information you need to decide which career path to follow. - A great way to do this is through internships and work experience.  Is the Hospitality Industry for You? - The personal characteristics, qualities, skills, and abilities you’ll need are:  Honesty  Hard work  Being a team player  Being prepared to work long hours spread over various shifts  The ability to cope with stress  Good decision-making skills  Good communication skills  Being dedicated to exceptional service, and  Having a passion and desire to exceed guest expectations. - Recruiters look for service-oriented people, who “walk their talk,” meaning they do what they say they’re going to do. - Good work experience, involvement in on-campus and professional organizations, a positive attitude, a good grade point average all show a commitment to an individual’s studies.  Self-Assessment and Personal Philosophy - The purpose of completing a self-assessment is to measure our current strengths and weaknesses and to determine what we need to improve if we are going to reach our goals. - Self-assessment helps establish where we are now and shows us the links to where we want to go: our goals. - Your philosophy is your beliefs, the way you treat others, and your work. It will determine who you are and what you stand for.  Now Is the Time to Get Involved - For your own enjoyment and personal growth and development, it is very important to get involved with on-campus and professional hospitality and tourism organizations and to participate in the organization of events. - Recruiters notice the difference between students who have become involved with various organizations and students who have not, and they take that into consideration when assessing candidates for positions with companies.  Professional Organizations - Becoming a student member in hospitality related organizations shows your commitment to your career and becomes a basis for recruiters to see your professional attitude. Trends in Hospitality and Tourism  Major trends in the hospitality industry include: - Globalization - Health, Safety and Security - Diversity and changing Demographics, Service Technology - Sustainability and Green Travel - Legal issues - Travel with a Purpose, and - Social Media and Mobile.


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