Chemistry 211 - 003 Week 1 Notes
Chemistry 211 - 003 Week 1 Notes CHEM 211-003
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lucas Kinsey on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 211-003 at George Mason University taught by Pritha G. Roy in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
Lucas Kinsey Chemistry 211 – 003 Fall 2016 Dr. Roy Chemistry Week 1 Notes Chemistry: The study of matter and its properties, the changes that matter undergoes, and the energy associated with those changes Key Definitions: Matter: anything that has mass and volume Composition: the types and amounts of simpler substances that make it up Properties: characteristics that give each substance its unique identity Chemical reaction: when one substance is changed into another substance Physical properties: characteristics that show without interaction with other particles - Can change back between two states of matter Chemical properties: characteristics that show during interaction with other substances - Cant change back and forth between different states Extensive Properties: A property that changes when the size of the sample changes (ex: mass, volume, length, charge, ect..) Intensive properties: A property that doesn’t change when you take away the sample (ex: temperature, hardness, color, melting point, boiling point, ect..) Derived Unit: An SI unit of measurement comprised of a combination of the seven base units (ex: Force = ma, Density = m/v, ect…) Macroscopic properties are visible while atomic-scale properties are not Energy: Energy: the ability to do work - Potential energy + Kenetic energy = Total Energy 2 Central concepts in regards to energy: 1 When energy is converted from one form to the other, it is conserved, not destroyed 2 Situations of lower energy are more stable than situations of higher enrgy 4 different types of energy: 1. Resistance to gravity – potential energy increases as more resistance to gravity is applied. The farther away from the source of gravity an object is the more potential energy it has. Potential energy is converted to kinetic energy as it moves towards the gravity source. 2. Spring potential energy – the coils of any spring or spring like contraption have a natural resting point, this is usually the reference point. And stretching from this reference point adds potential energy and kinetic energy while it is moving. Stability decreases as it stretches or contracts from its natural position. 3. Electrical charges – Opposites attract and alike charges repel to achieve stability. Any time a particle moves in the opposite direction of stability the potential energy increases. As the particles move it uses kinetic energy. 4. Transformation of substances - The chemical potential energy of a substance results from the relative positions of and the attractions and repulsions among its particles. In transition from a substance of high potential energy to low potential energy kinetic energy is released. This kinetic energy is used when fuel is burned for example. Scientific Approach: Observation Hypothesis Hypothesis is revised if experiment results do not support it ExpTheoryt Further Experiments Model is altered if predicted events do not support it Unit Conversion Factors in Calculations - Conversion Factors: ratios used to express a quantity in different units o Uses equivalent quantities Ex:) 1 Mile = 5280 Feet - 150 Miles = 79200 Feet - The conversion factor you use must cancel all units except those you want to answer - To get from kg to L: kg g L o × × = L 1 kg g Sig Figs - The more Significant Figures there are, the more certainty there is in the measurement. Every measurement has some degree of uncertainty - For Multiplication and division: o Answer contains the same number of sig figs as there are in the measurement with the fewest sig figs 1,400 x 223 = 312,200 310,000 - For Addiction and Subtraction: o The answer has the same number of decimal places as there are in the measurement with the fewest decimal places 13.13 + 0.0093 = 13.14 - Precision: Reproducibility, the amount of times a measurement can be consistently obtained - Accuracy: How close the measurement is to the actual value - Systematic error produces values that are either all higher or all lower than the actual value. (This issue can easily be solved by calibrating measuring equipment) - Random error produces values that are higher and lower than the actual value sporadically throughout the data (This issue is usually due to human error) PREFIX SYMBOL WORD CONVENTIONA SCIENTIFIC L NOTATION NOTATION TERA T Trillion 1,000,000,000,0 1x10^12 00 GIGA G Billion 1,000,000,000 1x10^9 MEGA M Million 1,000,000 1x10^6 KILO K Thousand 1,000 1x10^3 HECTOR h Hundred 100 1x10^2 DEKA da Ten 10 1x10^1 - - One 1 1x10^0 DECI d Tenth 0.1 1x10^-1 CENTI c Hundredth 0.01 1x10^-2 MILLI m Thousandth 1x10^-3 MICRO Millionth 0.001 1x10^-6 NANO n Billionth 0.000001 1x10^-9 PICO Trillionth 0.000000001 1x10^-12 FEMTO f Quadrillionth0.00000000000 1x10^-15 0001 PHYSICAL QUANTITY UNIT NAME UNIT ABBREVIATION MASS Kilogram kg LENGTH Meter M TIME Second S TEMPERATURE Kelvin K ELECTRICAL Ampere A CURRENT AMOUNT OF Mole mol SUBSTANCE LUMINOUS Candela cd INTENSITY Length 1km 1,000 (10^3 0.6214 Miles 1mi = 1.609 meters) km 1m 100 (10^2 1.094 yards 1yd = 0.0144 centimiters) 1,000 39.37 inches 1ft = 0.3048 milimeters 1cm 0.1 (10^-2 0.3937 1in = 2.54 meters) inches cm Volume 1m cubed 1,000,000 35.31 ft 1 ft cubed = (10^2 cm cubed 0.02823 m cubed) cubed 1dm cubed 1,000 cm 0.2642 gal 1 gal = 3.785 cubed dm cubed 1.057 qt 1 qt = 0.9464 dm cubed 1 qt = 9.464 cm cubed 1 cm cubed 0.001 dm 0.03381 fl oz 1 fl oz = cubed 29.57 cm cubed Mass 1 kg 1,000 g 2.205 lbs 1 lb = 0.4536
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