Hist 1210 Textbook Notes Ch.2
Hist 1210 Textbook Notes Ch.2 Hist 1210
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Date Created: 09/05/16
Patterns of World History Ch.2 Agrarian-Urban Centers of the Middle East and Eastern Mediterranean Agrarian-urban society: a type of society characterized by intensive agriculture and people living in cities, towns, and villages. Agrarian Origins in the Fertile Crescent, ca. 11,500-1500 BCE Process of moving from foraging to agriculture took several millennia. Agriculture increased as farmers mastered increasingly complex methods of irrigation rather than rain-fed farming. Grain surpluses allowed for the building of cities and states. o Sedentary Foragers and Foraging Farmers Geography and Environment Agrarian society: at a minimum, people engaged in farming cereal grains on rain0fed or irrigated fields and breeding sheep and cattle. The Natufians A short-lived, semi-settled culture. Neolithic Era (New Stone Age) ca. 9600-4500 BCE When stone tools were adapted to the requirements of agriculture, through the making of sickles and spades. Characterized by innovations such as polished stone, agriculture, animal domestication, bricks, plaster, and pottery. Selective Breeding of Grain and Domestic Animals Old and new hamlets (small groups of people, similar to villages) expanded quickly: Most expanded from around 50 people to 300-500 people. Continued to collect grain, but also began planting fields. Through selective breeding, started harvesting grain that ripened at the same time. First domesticated livestock: sheep and goats. Original agriculture relied on the annual rains. Newfound innovation of tapping creeks for irrigation of fields. Farmers found the benefits of rotating their crops and driving animals across harvested fields for nutrition. Around 6500 BCE, cattle, pigs, and donkeys were added to the domesticated animals list. Pottery became present. Clay vessels fired in kilns. o The Origin of Urban Centers in Mesopotamia and Egypt Euphrates and Nile Floods Ubaid culture of villages around 6000-4000 BCE. Irrigated farming in Mesopotamia contributed to more predictable water supply. More productive and reliable. Early Towns Around 5500-3500 BCE, villages in Mesopotamia turned into towns composed of a few thousand people. Assembly: gathering of either all inhabitants or the most influential persons in a town; later, in cities, assemblies and kings made communal decisions on important fiscal or judicial matters. Very involved in communal cooperation with crop rotation and irrigated agriculture. Sharecroppers: farmers who received seed, animals, and tools from landowners in exchange for up to two-thirds of their harvest and access to land. Nomads: people whose livelihood was based on the herding of animals, such as sheep, goats, cattle, horses, and camels; moving with their animals from pasture to pasture according to the seasons, they lived in tent camps. Chalcolithic Era / Copper Age begins around 4300 BCE. Temples Wealthy landowners gained control over the communal grain stores and clan shrines and enlarged these into town shrines. Over time, these town shrines grew into monumental temples with adjacent kilns, granaries, workshops, breweries, and administrative buildings. The World's First Cities City/City-State: a place of more than 5,000 inhabitants with nonfarming inhabitants (craftspeople, merchants, administrators, etc.), markets, and a city leader capable of compelling obedience to his decisions by force. This led to the first examples of leaders wielding police power. First city: known to be Uruk around 4300 BCE. First known use of the plow. Two and four-wheeled carts. Beginning of the Bronze Age (3300-1200 BCE) Bronze is the world's first alloy, composed of copper and arsenic or tin. Alloy: a blending of two or more metals in the smelting process. Cuneiform Writing Scribes wrote cuneiform on script or clay tablets. Major expansion of the conceptual horizons of mankind. With the advent of writing, record keeping, communication, and increasingly abstract thought, history could finally be recorded. o Kingdoms in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Crete Craftspeople invented lifting devices to channel water from canals to crops. Grain surpluses of temples and villages increased greatly. Kingship in Mesopotamia The expansion of agriculture is responsible for the rise of nearly two dozen cities in lower and central Mesopotamia. People drew borders, fought over access to water, made deals to share it, and both negotiated and fought over the ownership of wandering livestock. Wars broke out and cities built walls and recruited military forces. Commanders of the military forces used their military positions to acquire wealth and demanded to be recognized as leaders. Akkadia and Babylonia Two cities competing for military supremacy around 2000s BCE. Sargon (king of Akkadia) created the world's first empire. Empire: large multiethnic, multilinguistic, multireligious state consisting of a conquering kingdom and several defeated kingdoms. Patriarchy and Gender Villages increased patriarchal structure of society, eventually the formation of empires. In more egalitarian agricultural societies there was little room for gender distinction. Inheritance of private property through male descent. Men assumed legal power in nearly every agrarian-urban culture. Patriarchy was not a product of agrarian but of urban society in city-states and kingdoms of Mesopotamia and Egypt. Egyptian Kingdoms Hierankopolis: first city Early policies of Egyptian kings focused almost exclusively on the unification of Egypt. Hieroglyphs, Bureaucracy, and Pyramids Egyptian kings greatly aided in the process of unification by the introduction of a system of accounting and writing . Workforce of 10,000 composed of farmers working off their one month labor service owed to the king The Minoan Kingdom Palace-state: a city or fortified palace with surrounding villages Interactions among Multieithnic and Multireligious Empires, ca. 1500-600 BCE Society in the Middle East and the Mediterranean changed in important ways. i.e. chariot warfare, iron tools, and iron weapons were developed and refined. Also, military and transport technologies. On basis of the above contributions, conquerors built large empires in which a small, ethnically defined ruling class ruled over collections of other ethnic groups, speaking a multiplicity of languages and sacrificng to a multiplicity of gods. o The Hittite and Assyrian Empires, 1600-600 BCE Proto-Indo-Europeans domesticated the horse and used it to pull chariots. Horses and Chariots from Central Asia Horse-drawn chariots and composite bows introduced in military. The Hittite Empire First to use the above chariots and bows in military. Pioneers of the multiethnic, multilinguistic, and multireligious empire Imperial Egypt Bronze Age collapse: around 1200 BCE, resulting from the collapse of the Hittite Empire and the weakening of the Egyptian New Kingdom; chariot warfare had become unsustainable in these early kingdoms. Iron Age: around 1500-1200 BCE, smiths were able to produce sufficiently high temperatures to smelt iron bloom, a mixture of iron and a variety of impurities. The Assyrians At the peak of their conquests (745-609 BCE), the Assyrian rulers became the first to unify all of the Middle East. o Small Kingdoms on the Imperial Margins, 1600-600 BCE The Phoenicians Highly engaged in trade. Acquired world-historical importance through their introduction of the letter alphabet. Better than cuneiform and hieroglyphs due to its simplicity. The Phoenician alphabet of ca.1200 BCE was the most widely used, becoming the ancestor of all alphabetical scripts. The Pelesets and Israelites Pelesets = Philistines During Egypt's imperial phase (ca. 1550-1200 BCE), Egypt controlled the Palestinian towns of Gaza, Ashkelon, Ashdod, Gath, and Ekron. When the Philistines took over southern Syria and Egypt withdrew a short time later, agriculture and trade quickly recovered from heavy Egyptian taxation. The Mycenaeans and Early Greeks After adaptation to farming, demand for specialized agricultural products (olive oil, wine, dried fruits, nuts, etc) among the villages had advanced enough so that whole towns and cities that specialized in and traded these goods. The Greeks initially introduced a cuneiform-derived script, but eventually adopted the Phoenician alphabet and literacy returned. The Greeks added vowels to the existing consonants to create the Greek alphabet. City-state: a city with surrounding villages. The villages provided the city with grain, vegetables, olive oil, and wine for urban dwellers while the urban dwellers provided the villages with specialized products and protection. During 750-600 BCE, conflict broke out between the aristocracy and the common fold over the distribution of wealth in the growing cities. Some aristocrats exploited these tensions and allied themselves with groups of commoners, assumed power as tyrants, and attempted to create family dynasties. Other aristocrats opposed the tyrants and agreed to power sharing with commoners. Through trade, many commoners became wealthier than aristocrats. Both aristocrats and commoners served as foot soldiers in the city states' defense forces. Phalanx: block of eight or more rows of soldiers marching forward shoulder to shoulder, each man holding a shield in the left hand, helping to guard the man to his left, while in his right hand he held a lance or pike. Known as "hedgehog" formations. This equality on the battlefield led to just as many ordinary city- dwellers to become military equals of the aristocracy and in turn demand an equal share of political power in times of peace. Republicanism: a system of government in which, in the place of kings, the people are sovereign, electing representatives to executive and legislative offices. Democracy: a system of government in which most or all of the people elect representatives and in some cases decide on important issues themselves. Religious Experience and Cultural Achievements In human groups around 5500 BCE, Foraging, naturalism, and ritual caves led to agriculture, polytheism, and sanctuaries/temples. Naturalism: when people experience an awe and reverence toward the creatures and forces of the natural world. Polytheism: the general term used to denote religions of personified forces in nature. Toward Polytheism Paleolithic rock paintings in Africa, Europe, and Australia show figures of hybrid human-animals such as "lionman," "bisonman," and "sorcerer." Connection between emergence of writing, kingship, and gods is essential to understand polytheism, or religion in general: Prior to 3500 BCE, religion tended to be an impersonal and nameless naturalism; and after, tended to be polytheism of kings with often colorful personalities, told in myths and epics. Writing made it possible for the recording of individuals (kings, gods, etc). Scientific Beginnings Mathematical calculations, such as addition and subtraction, began in Mesopotamia even before the first writing systems were introduced. Introduction of functions, roots, multiplication and division, squares, cubes, square roots. Egyptian medical standards included "half-head" which is the same as modern "migraine." Also had remedies for treating stiffness of limbs, pregnancy, birth complications, and childhood diseases, as well as advice for birth control and abortion, circumcisions, and stitching up wounds. Putting it All Together The beginning of the agrarian age in the Middle East and eastern Mediterranean was marked by agricultural surpluses, especially in irrigated areas. Depending on size of surplus, city-states and kingdoms and even empires emerged. Rulers of these small and large states focused on establishing and maintaining authority, which included military force. This was sometimes hard to justify due to the inequality of what commoners gave to what they received. Thus, leaders appealed to the gods to claim divine authority. Popular of aristocratic assemblies survived and were revived in the Greek poleis (city-state). The continuation of assemblies was due to the rise of the message of personal salvation, which announced that it was not simply fate or misfortune to live and die under these often harsh imperial powers. Instead, it insisted on a transcending human destiny over the institutions.
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