PY 101 Chapter 1 Notes
PY 101 Chapter 1 Notes PY 101
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Chain on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Carolyn GIbson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see PY 101 in Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
Chapter 1: Part 1(Introduction to Psychology) What is Psychology? -The scientific study of how people think, feel, and behave -Study of the mind, brain, and behavior Includes a wide variety of topics: -Attention -Neurotransmitters -Classical Conditioning -Dissociative Identity Disorder Dihydrogen Monoxide -It is found in cancerous tumors. -It causes excessive sweating and vomiting. -It can cause severe burns as a gas. -Accidental inhalation can kill you. -It is a major component in acid rain. -It contributes to erosion. -It decreases effectiveness of car brakes. Do you know what this is?? Pure Water Pseudoscience -Oversimplified claims -Anecdotes rather than tests -No peer review or replication -Sticking with claims in the face of conflicting evidence -Proof instead of evidence -Fancy Language Cornerstone of Science -Clearly defined technology -Quantifiably -Highly controlled experimental conditions -Reproductively -Predictability and Testability Top Occupations for Bachelor’s in Psychology 1. Top and mid-level management and administration 2. Sales 3. Social Work 4. Other management occupations 5. Labor-relations, personnel, and training 6. Administrative positions 7. Real estate, business services, and insurance 8. Marketing Psychologists: Subfields -54.6% Clinical -General experimental 3.2% -Industrial and organizational 4.2% -Personality, social, and cultural 4.4% -Cognitive 5.3% -Developmental 5.7% -Neuroscience/biological 6.3% -School/Educational 7.7% -Counseling 8.7% Part 2: Historical Perspectives on Psychology Precursors to Psychology -Control of Human Behavior Nature vs. Nurture Debate -Plato(Brain) -Nature(Genetics) -Aristotle(Heart) - Nurture(Enviroment) -Philosophy -Locke’s tabula rasa -Rousseau’s noble savage Development of Psychology -Wilhelm Wundt -First Psych Lab -Introspection -Structure of human consciousness -Edward Titchener(Structuralism) -William James(Functionalism) -Charles Darwin -Adaptation -Natural Selection -Survival of the fittest -Gestalt Psychology -Max Wetheimer -Kurt Koffka -Experience is more than the sum of its parts -Functionalism is too limited -Influences -Sensation and Perception -Personality Perspectives in Psychology: Psychodynamic -Sigmund Freud -Historically: behavior guided by unconscious forces -Currently: thought processes occur without our awareness Freud -Influence on pop culture? -Been widely discredited Behaviorism -Identifying laws that predict behavior -Behavior-observable responses -Major People: John Watson & B.F. Skinner Cognitive -Learning Theorists: “The Black Box” -How people mentally representation info -Making decisions, memory, language A Test of Logic -Pick a number between 1 and 10 -Multiply that number by 3. -Add the two digits together. -Subtract 5 from that number. -You should have a number between 1-26. Find the letter that corresponds to that number in the alphabet. Now… -Take that letter and think of any country in the world that begins with that letter… -Take the letter that comes next in the alphabet and think of an animal that begins with that letter. -Think about what color that is Biological -Phineas Gage Social -How people interact -Attitudes -Situational Influences on behavior -Cross-cultural patterns of behavior -Kurt Lewin(Major Infuence) Part 3: Psychology Today Major Themes: Evolutionary Adaptation -The mind adapts-biologically and culturally -Survival and Reproduction] -Dealing with Other People -E.g. fear of heights -E.g. preference for sweet foods -Cultural Adaptation occurs much faster than biological adaptation -Flow of People -Commodities -Financial Instruments -Internet -Culture plays a foundational role in shaping how people view and reason about the world around them -People from different cultures possess very different mindsets Latest Developments: Brain Chemistry -Hundreds of substances play a role in mental activity and behavior -Different when we are aroused than when we are calm Neuroscience -Where in the brain activity occurs: Connected with specific mental tasks -Frontal Lobe: Motor Control, Concentration, planning, problem solving, speech, smell -Parietal Lobe: Touch and Pressure, Taste, Body Awareness -Temporal Lobe: Hearing, Facial Recognition -Occipital Lobe: Vision -Cerebellum -Language & Reading
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