PY 101 Week 2 Notes
PY 101 Week 2 Notes PY 101
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Chain on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Carolyn GIbson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see PY 101 in Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
Chapter 2: Research Methodology Part 1: Research Methods What is Scientific Inquiry? -Four Primary goals of science 1. Description 2. Prediction 3. Control 4. Explanation -What, when and why of behavior and mental processes -Elements of Scientific Method -Theory (Explanation based on observations) -Hypothesis (Prediction based on the theory) -Research (Test of the hypothesis. This test yields data) …The data either -Supports the Theory, which you then refine with new hypothesis and research. -Refuse or Fail to support the Theory, which you either discard or revise (and then test your revised theory). -Sometimes research doesn’t need to happen… -Jack Mack of Harvard and David Jacobs of Temple for thir leaping conclusion that people who believe they were kidnapped by aliens probably were— and especially for their conclusion “the focus of the abduction of children” -Daniel Oppenheimer of Princeton University for his report “Consequences of Erudite Vernacular Utilized Irrespective of Necessity; Problems with Using Long Words Needlessly” -Juan Manuel Toro, Josep B. Trobalon and Nuria Sebastian-Galles, for showing that rats sometimes cannot tell the difference between a person speaking Japanese backwards and a person speaking Dutch backwards. -Anita Eerland and Rolf Zwaan and Tulio Guadalupe for their study “Leaning to the Left Makes the Eiffel Tower Seem Smaller” -Research Includes Variables -Variable -Anything measured or manipulated in research -Attributes that vary across individuals and situations, such as age, sex, and popularity -Operational Definition -EXACT wording for how a variable is measured or manipulated -A definition that qualifies (describes) or quantifies (measures) a variable so a variable can be understood objectively -How to Operationalize a Variable -Identify the concept you hope to measure. -For example, say you had a party to watch the national championship. You invite all your friends and 16 people come. At the end of the first quarter, everyone is hungry and pizza sounds like it will satisfy everyone appetite. You ask what everyone’s favorite toppings are. So you take down what everybody likes but you aren’t going to buy 5 separate, so you only pick two topping preferences to order. How are you going to measure your friends’ satisfaction? -2 Different Variables -Independent -Variable manipulated by the researcher -What was our independent variable in the pizza party? -Types of Pizza Chosen -Dependent Variable -Response measured in the experiment -Presumed effect of the independent variable -IV-DV -What was our dependent variable for the pizza party? -Satisfaction -Research in Psychology -Three Main Types of Designs 1. Descriptive 2. Correlational 3. Experimental -Descriptive Studies -Involve observing and classifying behavior -Case studies, observational studies, self-report methods -When to use? -Valuable in early stages of research when trying to determine whether a phenomenon exists -When you want to observe in a real-world setting -Case Studies -Intensive examination of unusual people or organizations -Advantages -Can provide extensive data about one or a few individuals and organizations -Disadvantages -Subjective -Results cannot be generalized to the population -When useful? -Observational Techniques -Systematic assessment and coding of overt behavior -Advantages: able to generalize results to real-world setting -Disadvantages -Reactivity -Knowledge that one is being observed alters behavior -Observer basis -Errors that occur because of an observer’s expectations -Experimenter expectancy effect -Actual change in behavior due to the expectations of the observer -Self-Report Methods -Questionnaire, surveys, interviews -Advantages -Large samples -Easy to administer, cost-effiecient, and relatively fast -Disadvantages -Self-report basis -People can introduce bias into their answers -May recall information inaccurately -Socially responding/faking good Part 2: Correlation -Correlation Studies -Examine how variable are related, with no intervention by the observer -Advantages -Rely on naturally occurring relationships -May take place in a real-world setting -Disadvantages -Cannot be used to support casual relationships -Sample Question: -A correlation between variables normally indicates that one variable causes the other. True or False Direction of Correlation -Positive Correlations -Two variables either increase(up arrow, up arrow) or decrease(down arrow, down arrow) together -Move in the same direction -Negative Correlations -One variables increases while the other decreases(up arrow,down arrow) and vice versa(down arrow, up arrow) -Move in opposite directions -Correlation Does Not Equal Causation -Cause-effect inference in correlation is not justified. Why? -Direction-of-causation problem -Correlation between two variables does not indicate which, if either, variable is the cause of the other. -Third Variable Problem -Correlation between two variables may stem from both being influenced by some third variable. -Age of First Drinking alcohol and risk of developing alcohol dependence A. Positive B. Negative C. No relationship -Why are these variables related(directionality or 3 rdvariable)? -Number of languages spoken and cognitive ability in the elderly A. Positive B. Negative C. No relationship -Ice Cream sales and Drowning A. Positive B. Negative C. No relationship - Why do we use Correlational Designs? -Ethical Reasons -E.g. Cannot make people smoke -Making Predictions -E.g. People who smoke more likely to get lung cancer Part 3: Experiments -Experimental Designs -Experiment -Researcher manipulates an IV to examine its effect on a DV -Advantages -Can demonstrate casual relationships -Avoid the directionality problem -Disadvantages -Often take place in an artificial setting -Groups in Experimental Design -Experimental Group -Group who is presented the experience of interest -Receives the IV or manipulation (e.g. drug) -Control Group -Group who is not presented the experience of interest but is treated similarly -Comparison group that does not receive the IV or manipulation (e.g. placebo) -Examining Causality -IV assumed to be cause of change in DV -Must minimize possibility anything other than IV will affect outcome -Compound -Anything other than the IV that affects a DV -Sampling -Population: represents every member of the group -Sample: subset of the larger population that the data is collected from -Representative sample: the sample reflects the important characteristics of the population -Sampling bias: every member does NOT have the same chance of being included in the research -Random Sampling -Every person in population has equal chance of being selected -Most researchers use a convenience sample -Allows us to generalize findings from sample to population -Sample Question -A good study will try to select a population that is representative of the same to which the researchers want to generalize. -True or False -Random Assignment -Random Assignment -Participants have equal chance of being assigned to any level of the IV -Increases likelihood that groups are equivalent at start of experiment -Selection Basis -Groups not equivalent because differ in unexpected ways that affect the DV -Random assignment prevents selection bias (confounds) -Sample Question -One advantage of random assignment is that it minimizes preexisting differences between the experimental group and the control group. -True or False -Experiment Recap 1. Researcher manipulates… the independent variable 2. Researcher randomly assigns subjects to… control group or experimental group 3. Researcher measures… dependent variable 4. Researcher assesses result: Are the Results in the control group different from the results in the experimental group? 5. Conclusion: The explanation either supports or does not support the hypothesis. Are there confounds, which would lead to alternative explanations? -Other Data Collection Methods -Response performance -Psychophysiological assessment -Neurological assessment -Response Performance -Measures processing of information -Advantages -Relatively simple way to study cognition and perception -Less affected by observer bias or subject reactivity -Disadvantages -Can be costly and time consuming -Less likely to be useful in real-world settings -For example, reaction time -Exercise for CTA -Psychological Methods -Examine how bodily functions change in association with behaviors or mental states -Advantages -Identify physical responses to external events -Disadvantages -Some methods are best for assessing how quickly the body and brain respond (EEG) -Some are best for localizing brain activity (PET, Fmri, TMS) -Correlational design -Electrophysiology -Measures electrical activity in the brain using EEG -Too imprecise to isolate specific responses to particular stimuli -Event-related potential (ERP) -By averaging across many trials, brain activity in response to a specific stimulus can be observed -EEG Demo -Brain Imaging -Positron emission tomography (PET) -Measures brains metabolic activity by tracking radioactive -Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) -Measure blood flow by assessing changes in the blood’s 02 -Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation -Magnetic field disrupts brain activity momentarily in a specific momentarily in a specific brain region -Useful for examining which brain regions are necessary for specific functions -E.g. placing a TMS coil over areas of the brain involved in language will temporarily disrupt a person’s ability to speak -Ethical Considerations -Ethics in research has grown as the field has evolved -E,g. Philip Zimbardo and the Stanford Prison Experiment -Ethics -Informed consent -Debriefing
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