NHM 361- Structure and Function Carbohydrates 8/31 and 9/2
NHM 361- Structure and Function Carbohydrates 8/31 and 9/2 NHM 361
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanessa Notetaker on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NHM 361 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Amy Cameron Ellis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Nutritional Biochemistry in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
NHM 361 Carbohydrates LECTURES 6 AND 7 Introduction Biomolecule is an organic compound essential for life o Macronutrients consist of carbohydrates, proteins and fats o Micronutrients are only needed in small amounts but are essential for life functions Carbohydrates contain Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen atoms o Arranged in (CH 2) fnrmula Glucose C H6O12 6 Ribose C H5O10 5 Functions of Carbohydrates Provide energy through their oxidation o Every cell in body can use glucose as energy form o Brain and RBC can only use glucose Supply carbon atoms for biosynthesis of other organic compounds Serve as storage form of chemical energy (glycogen) Glycocalyx = oligosaccharides on the surface of many cells o Allows cells to recognize each other Glycoprotein= oligosaccharide and protein together in the cell membrane that act as adhesive between cells getting them to stick together Act as structural components(deoxyribose) Structure of Carbohydrates Monosaccharides are called simple sugars Disaccharides are 2 monosaccharides joined by a dehydration synthesis reaction o Hydrolysis will break a disaccharide apart Oligosaccharide is a short chain of monosaccharide units (3-10 units) Polysaccharide is a long chain of monosaccharide units Structure of Monosaccharides Large amounts of functional groups on chain Monosaccharides have hydroxyl groups but can also be aldehydes or ketones o Ketose- sugar that is ketone o Aldose- sugar that is aldehyde Stereochemistry of Carbohydrates Stereoisomers are compounds with same molecular and structural formula but different arrangements of atoms An enantiomer is one of two stereoisomers that is mirror image of another o Chiral because mirror images are nonimposable Chiral carbon needs to have four different groups Fischer Projections Allows for the illustration of 3-dimensional stereochemistry on 2-dimensional page Carbonyl group placed at the top of the page and chiral carb0ons are represented by intersecting lines Horizontal bonds are meant to come towards you and vertical bonds go away from you D and L enantiomers Designated by the furthest chiral carbon from the carbonyl group and whether or not that functional group is on the left or right If the functional group is on the right it is a D enantiomer o Most naturally occurring sugars are D isomers If the functional group is on the left it is a L enantiomer Cyclic forms of Monosaccharides Aldehyde or ketone groups on a sugar can react with a distant hydroxyl group to form a ring structure . This is called cyclization o Pyranose- 6 membered sugar ring containing an oxygen atom o Furanose- five membered sugar ring containing oxygen Haworth Structures for Cyclic Sugars Representations of 3D cyclic sugars Two possible representations with the functional group pointing up or down. These two are called anomers The C-1 carbon is called the anomeric carbon o When the functional group points up it is a beta configuration Beta is better o When it points down it is an alpha configuration Phosphorylated Sugars Sugars become phosphorylated when a phosphate group is added to it o Glucose-6-phosphate o Fructose-6-phosphate Important Monosaccharides Ribose and deoxyribose o Pentoses that are structural components of DNA and RNA Fructose o Taste the sweetest o Abundant in fruits and present in 1:1 ratio with glucose in honey Glucose o Primary source of energy in the body Galactose o Same structure as glucose except for orientation of hydroxyl at C-4 Glycosidic Bonds When the anomeric hydroxyl of one monosaccharide reacts with hydroxyl group of another monosaccharide Dehydration synthesis enables two simple sugars to join together to form a disaccharide When bond is facing down it is alpha Disaccharides Lactose=Glucose + Galactose o Joined by beta 1,4 glycosidic bond o Commonly called milk sugar o When people have lactose intolerance it is because of a shortage in the enzyme lactase that breaks down lactose in the body Maltose=Glucose + Glucose o Joined by alpha 1-4 glycosidic bond o Typically found in beer Sucrose= Glucose + Fructose o Joined by alpha-1 beta-2 glycosidic bond Polysaccharides Hundreds or thousands of monosaccharide units joined by glycosidic bonds Not soluble in water because of their large size Starch is a polymer of glucose units o Storage form of glucose in plants o Amylose-long unbranched chain of glucose units connected by alpha 1- 4 glycosidic bonds Breaks down into maltose o Amylopectin-chain of glucose molecules with intermittent alpha 1-6 glycosidic bonds that create branch points in the molecule Glycogen o Storage form of glucose in animals o Similar structure to amylopectin but more highly branched Carbohydrates that Escape Digestion Cellulose o Gives plants cell wall strength and firmness o Joined by beta 1-4 linkages o Humans do not possess the enzyme to break down beta 1-4 linkages so cellulose passes undigested Artificial Sweeteners Made to be hundreds of times sweeter than sucrose and provide very few calories High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) o Hydrolyzed formation of corn starch with 55% fructose and 45% glucose making it more fluid and easier to work with than sucrose Dextrose o Glucose solution administered intravenously for fluid or nutrient replacement
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