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ARTH 211: Week 2 Lecture Notes

by: Evelyn Li

ARTH 211: Week 2 Lecture Notes ARTH 211

Evelyn Li
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About this Document

These notes cover both lectures from week two.
Design History Survey
Class Notes
typography, campaign, logos, visual, rhetoric, Arts, crafts, movement, bauhaus, dada, futurism
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Evelyn Li on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH 211 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Weissman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 151 views. For similar materials see Design History Survey in Art History at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.


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Date Created: 09/05/16
ARTH 211: Week 2 Lectures 8.29.16  Themes o 1) Social context affects the ethical/moral dilemmas faced by designers  The second Industrial Revolution  Design Reform Movement (including William Morris) responded to machine- production with notion of craft  Unintended effects of design practices  Names and Terms  Heal’s Catalog o 2) Visual Rhetoric and Typography  Campaign logos (persuasive information)  What is Visual Rhetoric?  There is no neutral communication  Meaning is not innate  Can printed pages “speak”?  Names/Terms  Michael Bierut  Lester Beall  Sol Sender  Rhetoric  Persuasive language  Dada  Tristan Tzara  Raoul Hausman  Blackletter/fraktur  Helvetica  Garamond  William Morris o Philip Webb and Morris, Red House, 1859-60  Clean, comfortable, natural, modest living  Avoided carved decoration or design  Gustav Stickley o Similar vein of thought as Morris (who worked in the UK) but in the US  Arts and Crafts movement was birthed from thoughts of high design but it was used instead for servants (plain, simple, humble designs) o It reinforced the class distinctions that Morris was trying to eliminate o Since it was used for the servant class, the wealthy had to distinguish themselves from the servants by having an elaborate and decorated lifestyle  Hall chairs (c. 1850) o To be seen by all, but sat upon only by social inferiors (hybrid object)  Seen by the wealthy (carved with elaborate designs) but used by the lower classes (lack of upholstery, flat and uncomfortable) o The design helped employers believe in the hierarchy of people (low class  to high class) o Object that stigmatized the low classes  Did the Arts and Crafts design provide some unintended inspiration? Is this an ethical dilemma, bad design, or just bad luck?  Visual Rhetoric // Campaign logos o Trump/Pence  Sexual innuendos  TP (toilet paper)  Smaller type of “Pence” o Mario Rubio  Tiny US as the dot on the “I” looks like a whale and left out Hawaii and Alaska; also very clunky and like an afterthought  Type could convey messages of youth and the modern day, but it could also come off as immature and too informal o Perry  Weird star on top of “P” in a failed attempt to integration image and text o Jeb  Exclamation mark is strange and feels out of place  His font doesn’t match who he is and so his logo seems to compensate instead of strengthen o Bernie  Critics didn’t seem to have any problems with it  The informality of his logo works since Bernie is rather lovable and funny o Hillary  Michael Bierut, a celebrity designer, designed her logo  No name – dissociate from her dynasty (like Jeb’s)  Arrow is putting to the right even though she’s a Democrat (the left)  Cold and calculating – implies these characteristics on her own personality  Clean, effective, and smart  No stars, stripes, or torches but still captures “Americanness” o Campaign logos have always been pretty uniform  Red, white, blue  Stars  Picture of candidate and running mate o Jimmy Carter  Green and white (environment and honesty)  Why Not The Best? o Carter and Kennedy songs  Their campaign songs paralleled the visual rhetoric of their logos o Presidential logos changed radically with Obama’s logo (2007-08)  Other logos were all typographic o Hillary’s logo can be changed and used in many different ways  Type can not only communicate personality (Heimann) but also persuade (as seen by the campaign logos) o “All of us, I would suggest are prompted in subliminal ways. Maybe the feelings you have when you see a particular typographic choice used on a piece of packing is just ‘I like the look of that,’…. but that’s the type casting its secret spell.” ~ Rick PYnor, Design Critic in Helvetica (2007) o Types were designed with certain associations in mind  Helvetica – designed to look modern and clear  Garamond – designed to read better when printed  Rhetoric: persuasive language  Visual rhetoric: persuasive language; communication aspiring to achieve a certain goal through the implementation and combination of various visual elements, including composition, typefaces, styles, colors, and images, etc.  Rhetorical approach: disputes idea that this is such a thing as pure information o Once you think about visual rhetoric, no matter how spare and simple text or logo is, it’s meaning exceeds content 8.31.16  Themes o Visual Rhetoric and Typography  What is visual rhetoric?  There is no neutral communication  Meaning is not innate o Avant-garde Typographic Experiments  Resisting tradition  Modernist universalism o Authoritarian Typographic Demands  Asserting dominance through type o Writing Assignment  How do printing pages “speak”?  Names/Terms o Rhetoric o Persuasive language o Dada o Futurism o Tristan Tzara o Raoul Hausmann o Kurt Schwitters o Käte Steinitz o Theo Van Doesburg o Typographical characters o Absolute abstraction o Universal language o Modernism o Herbert Bayer o Bauhaus o Jan Tschichold o John Heartfield o Blackletter/franktur  Dada o International, anti-nationalistic movement o Believed in destruction to create new opportunities o Anti-tradition o Dada artists mixed letter forms, ornaments, and image with the goal of shocking the viewer  Tristan Tzara, Poster for Salon Dada Exposition Internationale  Raoul Hausmann, Poster for Oirée du Coeur à Barbe o “Each page must explode…” o Kurt Schwitters  Schwitters, The Scarecrow  A children’s story about a farmer and his scarecrow o The scarecrow fails at scaring away the birds o Farmer attacks the scarecrow in anger o In the end, the farmer and the scarecrow disappear suddenly and everything is okay  Typographical characters  Used type to make the pictures/illustrations  Rejected by Dada’s because he wasn’t political enough  Influenced by El Lissitzky  Wanted to elevate absolute abstraction to create a universal language  Futurism o “We intend to sing the love of danger, the habit of energy and fearlessness. Courage, audacity, and revolt will be essential elements of our poetry…We affirm that the world’s magnificence has been enriched by a new beauty: the beauty of speed…the roaring car that seems to ride on a grapeshot is more beautiful than the Winged Victory…Except in struggle there is no more beauty, no work without aggressive character can be a masterpiece.” ~ Filippo Marinetti, Manifesto of Futurism, 1909 o Believed in violence and struggle o Futurism pulled type into an “artistic battlefield” o Poetry was an important medium o Harmony was rejected o Words were useful as expressive images, not phonetic sound or meaning  Marinetti, A Tumultuous Assembly, 1919  Marinetti, At Night in Her Bed, 1919 o Believed that noise and speed were the defining qualities of the 20 century o Fortunato Depero, Depero Futurista, 1927 o Dada and Futurism shared in their ideas of redefining type, but they didn’t share in the idea of the universal language  Bauhaus o Bauhaus believed in the universal language/abstraction o Known for introducing a new phase in typography o Bauhaus was a school of design that also made products o Herbert Bayer  Created the universal alphabet (1926)  Bold underlining  Wanted to strip type of their national signifiers  A purging of national identity through geometry  He was reacting to Nazi propaganda, which loved Gothic type  Jan Tschichold o Wrote Elemenatre Typographie (1925) to explain to Americans how asymmetry can be used effectively o The Trousers (film poster) o Casanova (film poster)  Meaning is not an innate quality; it is a matter of relationship o Gothic type used by the Nazis but it could also mean heavy metal, biker gangs, or even religion  Video: “Expressive Type and Book Layout Design in the Nineteen Century” o Artemus Ward, a comedian, died during his tour o A book of his performance used expressive type and layout to show how the comedian delivered his lines (i.e. dashes to indicate pauses, smaller type to indicate punchlines muttered under his breath)


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