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PSY 260, Week 2 Notes

by: Alexandra Notetaker

PSY 260, Week 2 Notes PSY 260

Marketplace > University of Miami > PYSCHOLOGY > PSY 260 > PSY 260 Week 2 Notes
Alexandra Notetaker

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About this Document

Chapter 2: Research in Personality Psychology
Personality Psychology
Dr. Jill Kaplan
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Notetaker on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 260 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Jill Kaplan in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Personality Psychology in PYSCHOLOGY at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 09/05/16
▯ Topics Covered  Where does data come from?  What research designs are used in personality psychology?  What does it mean to measure personality?  How do psychologists study many variables? ▯ Review Molecular-Molar Dimension  Molar (sociological) (The Incorporative Environment)  Intermediate (psychological) (The Personality System) (The Situation)  Molecular (biological) (The Brain and Nervous System) (The Setting) ▯ Major Types of Personal-Report Data  Self-judgement: agreeing or disagreeing with a given statement about onself  Convergent-Report: Constructing a response that meets a criterion  Thematic-report: creating responses that reflect themes or ideas  Process-report: pertaining to something going on in your mind at the moment ▯ Case studies and Obversationism  Easily understandable  Colorful and interesting  Hypothesis generation tools  Unrepresentative  No control  Observationism: repeated, intensive study of cases, over consistent conditions ▯ Review of Correlation  Correlation examines the co-relation between two variables  Symbol: r  The r varies from -1.0 to 1.0  1.0 and -1.0 represent perfect relations (doesn’t exist; never get it except life and death)  0 represents a random relation ▯ ▯ Experimental Methods ▯ ▯ Quasi-Experimental Designs  Natural treatment  No randomization  Creative personalities True Experimental Designs  Experimenter-applied treatments  Randomization ▯ Measurement of Attributes  Measure attributes of the object  For example, measurement of o Length o Weight ▯ Which of the following correlations between 2 variables is most useful for purpose of predicting one from the other?  -.75  .00  +.25  +.50 ▯ reliability  Demonstration: Take and Score a Test  Volunteer Scores  Reliability: Does a test measure with consistency?  ▯ Reliability in Physical Measurement  Things to Remembering Measuring a window for window blinds: o Use a steel tape for accuracy o Measure the exact width of the window at 3 different places o Make all measurements to the nearest 1/8 inch ▯ Definitions of Reliability  Informal: that a test measures what it measures with consistency  Formal: the correlation, r, between the true score and the obtained score ▯ Psychometric Theory (Classical Test Theory)  Theories of How to Measure Abstract, Mental Phenomena  The Central Equation: o X=T+e o X: the obtained test score o T: the true score o e: the error score  When is a mental test perfectly reliable? o X=0 o T=0 o E=0 (how will we really know if there is no error?) o X=T Measurement Validity  Definition: that a test measures what it is supposed to measure  Types: ▯ Face Validity  A test looks like it measures the right thing for measuring “Depression” : “Are you sad?” ▯ Content Validity  A test’s items/questions accurately sample from the content domain; ex: hostility ▯ Criterion/Predictive Validity  A test predicts a specific, measurable outcome such as a life variable: o Ex: marriage, GPA, occupational success  Or postdicts it(can go backwards and see how successful someone is and make sure it all matches and works in both directions), or concurrently indicates it ▯ Structural Validity  A test measure the number of things it claims to measure  Technical Test: Factor Analysis… o How many factors does a test measure? o Factor: an “underlying” variable ▯ Construct Validity  A test behaves the way it is supposed to behave according to theoretical statements, over numerous circumstances and tests ▯ Multiple Variables  Personality is a complex, multifaceted system  This means that a lot of variables may be examined at a time  How does one cope? ▯ Multivariate Techniques  Handle multiple variables  One crucial kind of technique examines “how many things” are being measured  The class of techniques includes: o Factor analysis o Multidimensional scaling o Cluster analysis ▯ Logic of Factor Analysis  factor analysis uses correlational logic o if multiple variables correlate highly, they are the same thing o if the variables don’t, they are different things  example: o if happiness and joy correlate highly: the same o if they don’t: different what does a factor look like? o A factor is represented by a column of factor loadings under a roman number o The factor loading is the correlation between a test item and a factor o The test item is below: o I am: I o Curious .40, interested .60, thoughtful .80, bored -.40  Interested, curious, thoughtful, NOT bored (-) Helen Fisher PhD: “Why Do Fools Fall in Love?” Simplified Rules for Interpreting a Factor  Step 1: Identify original test items with high positive loadings  Step 2: Ask, what are the items trying to “get at?” (primary name of the factor; ex: extraversion)  Step 3: Locate the items loading negatively on the same factor. Those tell you the “polar opposite” label if there is one; ex: introversion  Step 4: No high loadings? Then the factor is a “garbage” factor. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯


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