Lesson 1: An Introduction to Biology
Lesson 1: An Introduction to Biology BIOL 1105
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Notetaker on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1105 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Prof. JI Watkinson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 207 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Biology in Biology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
Lesson 1: An Introduction to Biology Characteristics of Living Systems Consist of cells Store and process information Transform energy Grow and reproduce Adapt and evolve *Most complex chemical systems on Earth *Diverse in form and function *Classified by phenotype or genotype/taxonomic ranks o Named according to binomial systems Taxonomic Ranks All RANK MNEMONIC DEVICE EXAMPLE (HUMANS) Domain Do Eukaryota Kingdom Keep Animalia Phylum Plates Chordata Class Clean Mammalia Order Or Primate Family Family Hominidae Genus Gets Homo Species Sick Sapiens organisms are related to one another and descend from a common ancestor Three Domains of Life Bacteria and Archaea o Prokaryotes: Unicellular with minimal internal structure and no membrane-bound internal compartments Eukaryotes: Either uni- or multicellular with a highly structured interior (contains organelles) Hierarchy for Unicellular Organisms CELL (ORGANISM) BIOSPHERE ORGANELLE ECOSYSTEM MACROMOLECULE COMMUNITY MOLECULE POPULATION ATOM ORGANISM (CELL) Hierarchy for Multicellular Organisms CELL ORGANISM BIOSPHERE ORGANELLE ORGAN SYSTEM ECOSYSTEM MACROMOLECULE ORGAN COMMUNITY MOLECULE TISSUE POPULATION ATOM CELL ORGANISM Cell Theory The cell was discovered by Robert Hooke (1665) Cells are the basic unit of structure in all organisms and the basic unit of reproduction o All organisms are composed of cells o Cells are the smallest living things o Cells arise only from pre-existing cells For unicellular organisms: The cell IS the organism Phenotype and Genotype Phenotype: An organism’s observable features Genotype: An organism’s genetic material and environmental factors that covert into its phenotype Relationships Among Organisms Taxonomy: Classification and naming of organisms o The more related the species, the more similarities in taxonomic rank Systematics: Examines evolutionary relationships between organisms in their environment Phylogenetics: Study of evolutionary relationships between groups of species o A Phylogenetic Tree shows differences in species/single organisms and connections to common ancestors o All of Earth’s organisms are predicted to share one common ancestor (estimated to have existed 3.5 billion years ago) Hierarchy levels (emergent properties): The whole is greater than the sum of its parts
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