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Chem 109

by: Hannah Rapp

Chem 109 CHEM 109

Hannah Rapp
GPA 4.0

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Chapter 2 Week 2 Notes
General Chemistry 1
Jason Kautz
Class Notes
ions, Molecular, compounds, periodic, Table
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Rapp on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 109 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Jason Kautz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Nebraska Lincoln.


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Date Created: 09/05/16
The Atomic Theory • In 1808, John Dalton formulated a precise definition of matter that we call atoms 1. Elements are composed of extremely small particles called atoms 2. All atoms of a given element are identical. The atoms of one element differ from the elements of another. - Ex) Gold atoms in a bar and gold atoms in a coin are the same. Gold and silver atoms are not the same. 3. Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one element. In any given compound, the same types of atoms are always present in the same relative numbers. - Ex) All 2 0 molecules always have 2 hydrogens and one oxygen. 4. A chemical reaction rearranges atoms in chemical compounds; it doesn’t create or destroy. - Ex) You can’t make gold from silver. - Ex) Conservation of Mass • According to Proust’s Law of Definite Proportions, different samples of a given compound always contain the same elements in the same mass ratio - 123 g CO 89.4 33.6 2.66:1 50.5 g CO 2 36.7 13.8 2.66:1 • According to the Law of Multiple Proportions, if two elements can combine to form more than one compound with each other, the masses of one element that combine with fixed mass of the other element are in ratios of small, whole numbers. CO 2 CO - CO 2 12 g C 32 g O mass of Oxygen in CO =232 = 2 CO 12 g C 16 g O mass of Oxygen in CO 16 1 - Ex) Nitrogen and Oxygen form NO and NO . I2 15.0 g of N react with 17.1 g of O to form NO, how many grams of O are required to react with 15.0 g N to form NO ?2 mass of O in NO= 1 = 17.1 mass of O in NO 2 x x= 34.2 g O - Ex) PbO: 9.89 g PB 0.763 g O PBO :22.98 g PB 0.461 g O 0.763 = 0.077 g O 0.461 = 0.1547 g O 9.89 1 g Pb 2.98 1 g Pb PbO: 1 g Pb 0.077 g O mass of O in PbO =20.1547 = 2 = 2:1 PbO 2 1 g Pb 0.1547 g O mass of O in PbO 0.077 1 The Structure of the Atom • JJ Thomson determined the charge to mass ratio of an electron; charge: mass= -1.76 x 10 -8 • Robert Miliken measured the charge of an electron with great precision. - Mass of electron= charge = -1.6022 x 10 -1= 9.10 x 10-28g charge/mass -1.76 x 10-8 - Coulomb’s Law: F= kq q1 2 E = q1 2 r2 r2 • Three types of decay particles - alpha - beta - gamma • Rutherford used alpha particles to prove the structure of the atom - proposed a new model: nuclear model • positive charge is in nucleus (small volume) • nucleus is extremely dense typical atomic radius is 100 pm • -3 • nuclear radius is 1.0 x 10 pm • nucleus is small, but contains the majority of the mass • Protons: positively charged particles in nucleus • Neutrons: electrically neutral particles in nucleus - slightly larger than proton Particle Mass Charge Unit Electron 9.109 x 10-28 - -1 Proton 1.673 x 10-24 + +1 Neutron 1.675 x 10-24 0 0 The Atomic Number, Mass, and Isotopes 12 • If C has 12 amu (12omic mass uni24 - it takes 2 C to equal 1 Mg, which equals 24 amu - it takes 12 H to equal 1 12C, so 1 H equals 1 amu • The mass of an oxygen atom with 8 protons and 8 neutrons is 1.33291 x the mass of 1 12C atom - Mass of O= (1.33291)(12) = 15.9949 • All atoms can be identified by the number of protons and neutrons they contain • Atomic number (Z) is the number of protons in the nucleus • Mass number (A) is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus A X Z Most elements have 2 or more isotopes, atoms that have the same atomic number, but different • mass numbers 1 2 3 H H H 0 1 1 Regular Hydrogen Atom Deuterium Tritium 1 proton 1 proton 1 proton 0 neutrons 1 neutron 2 neutrons • Isotopes of the same elements exhibit similar chemical properties, forming the same types of compounds and displaying similar reactivities • How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in Boron-10? • Solution Boron’s atomic number is 5, so we know there are 5 protons It is Boron-10, so the mass number is 10, giving up 5 neutrons In a neutral atom, the # of protons equals # of electrons, so there are 5 electrons The Periodic Table • Horizontal rows are called periods • Vertical columns are called groups or families • Elements can be grouped as metals, metalloids, or nonmetals • Metals • good conductors of heat and electricity • Metalloids • intermediate conductors of heat and electricity • Nonmetals • poor conductors of heat and electricity • GroupsG1- Alkali Metals (1+ charge) • G2- Alkaline Earth Metals (2+ charge) • G3-G11- Transition metals (can be 1+, 2+, 3+) • G16- Chalogens (2- charge) • G17- Halogens (1- charge) • G18- Noble Gases (normally don’t form ions) The Atomic Mass Scale and Average Atomic Mass • Most direct way to measure molecular mass is in a mass spectrometer • Atomic mass is the mass of the atom is amu Atomic Weight represents the average mass of the naturally occurring mix of • isotopes • Average mass= (amu X % of isotope) + (amu X % of isotope) • % of abundance: Average mass= (mass 1)(x) - (mass 2 (1-x)) answer will be in decimal form. multiply by 100 to get % Ions and Ionic Compounds • consists of one atoms with a + or - Charge • loss of an electron forms a cation • happens with metals • cations have a positive charge • ex) Na atom vs. Na ion 11 protons 11 protons 11 electrons 10 electrons add the word ion to the end for naming • + • Na is a sodium ion • gain of an electron forms a anion • happens with nonmetals • anions have a negative charge • ex) Cl atom vs. Cl ion 17 protons 17 protons 17 electrons 18 electrons • add suffix -ide to name ions • Cl is a chloride ion • O is an oxide ion Some metals can form cations of more than one possible charge • 2+ 3+ • Fe and Fe • Mg , Mg , Mg 4+ • Polyatomic ions consist of a combination of 2 or more ions • NH , NO , ClO , OH3, H O- 3 + • formulas for ionic compounds are generally empirical formulas (lowest ratio) • Oxyanion- pol-atomic anions with one or more oxygens • ClO 3s chlorate (base oxyanion) • if there is one more oxygen, add the prefix per- • ClO i4 perchlorate • if there is one less oxygen, change the suffix to -ite ClO is chlorite • 2 • if there is two less oxygens, add the prefix hypo- and the suffix -ite • ClO is hypochlorite • Hydrates- ionic compounds that contain water • CuSO an4 5H O is2Copper (II) Sulfate pentahydrate Naming Molecular Compounds • Naming the first part • if only 1 atom, there is no prefix (no mono-) • if there is more than 1 atom, add the prefix • ex) the hydrogen in HCl is hydrogen, not monohydrogen • Naming the second part • ALWAYS HAS A PREFIX (unless its a binary compound such as HCl) • ends in -ide • if the prefix ends in a vowel and the atom starts with a vowel, drop the vowel in the prefix • Ex) CO is carbon monoxide Prefix Number Prefix Number Mono- 1 Hexa- 6 Di- 2 Hepta- 7 Tri- 3 Octa- 8 Tetra- 4 Nona- 9 Penta- 5 Deca- 10 Simple Acids • produces H ions when dissolved in water • To name: remove the -gen in hydrogen, change the ending on the second element/ compounds to -ic and combine • ex) HCl is hydrochloric acid Naming Oxyacids • based on the oxyanion naming • if it’s oxyanion ends in -ate, acid is -ic • HClO i3 chloric acid if it’s oxyanion ends in -ite, acid is -ous • - • HClO i2 chlorous acid • if it’s oxyanion is per- -ate, acid is per- -ic • HClO i4 perchloric acid • it it’s oxyanion is hypo-, acid is hypo- -ous HClO is hypochlorous acid • • if there is more than one H, add the corresponding prefix Hydrocarbons • contain carbon and hydrogen Prefix Number of Carbons Prefix Number of Carbons Meth- 1 Hex- 6 Eth- 2 Hept- 7 Prop- 3 Ox- 8 But- 4 Non- 9 Pent- 5 Dec- 10 • Alkanes- C Hn 2n+2 If you have 3 Carbons, multiply # of C by 2 and add 2 to get the # of H • • C 3 w6ich is named propane • Alkenes- C Hn 2n If you have 4 Carbons, multiply # of C by 2 to get # of H • • C 4 w8ich is named butene • Alkynes-C Hn 2n-2 • If you have Carbons, multiply # of C by 2 and subtract 2 to get # of H • C 2 w2ich is ethyne


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