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Week 2 Notes (8/30 & 9/1)

by: Ashley Prenatt

Week 2 Notes (8/30 & 9/1) CSD 1080

Marketplace > Ohio University > CSD 1080 > Week 2 Notes 8 30 9 1
Ashley Prenatt
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This week's notes cover the following: *The 3 components of language *Aspects of communication *Some types of communication disorders *Phonology, Morphology and Syntax *Introduction to Assess...
Intro to Communication Science Disorders
Dr. Hajjar
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Prenatt on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CSD 1080 at Ohio University taught by Dr. Hajjar in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.


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Date Created: 09/05/16
Components of Communication    3 components:  Language  Speech  Hearing    Allows us to:    *Talk to others, explaining points of view, experiences, information, etc.  *Establishing relationships through communication  *Social etiquette: please, thank you, you’re welcome    Communication can be:    *Nonverbal ­ example: emojis  *Verbal    Variables that affect communication:     *Setting affects communication  *Who is involved? Parents, peers, teacher, etc., will vary the way you communicate    Language    “Socially shared system of arbitrary symbols used for communication.”    ­Has rules  *combining symbols to be meaningful  ­Aphasia: leads to language problems. Speech can be easy to understand, but  language is difficult to understand. Word finding difficulty.   ­vocabulary, thoughts, processing, order of words, examples of language disorders.  “Speech therapy,” doesn’t always mean for speech.     ­Phonology  ­the structure of sounds          ­Morphology ­ tenses  ­structure of words  ­rules, making new words, tenses, verb use  ­study of word structures, pieces of words, syllables   ­Syntax ­ grammar  ­structure of sentences  ­correct word order  ­many rules      ­Content: words, vocabulary  ­meaning of what we are saying  ­semantics  ­vocab is most tangible component  Use: Pragmatics  ­for example, who you’re talking to, where you’re talking   ­rules of communication? Rules of exchange?  ­eye contact, knowing what to do to be engaged, when it’s okay for you to talk  and when you should be listening    Speech    “The physical activity of creating sound that carries meaning, messages.”  ­voice   ­articulation  ­fluency  ­physical characteristic  ­voice is sound source, involving pitch, soft or loud, intonation (voice going up/down)  ­articulation, how the parts of the mouth physically move to produce sounds of speech  ­fluency: rhythm, if it’s broken up speech will be difficult to understand    Hearing    ­ability to perceive sounds  ­something to test in clients; have they had a hearing test?    Central auditory processing    ­brain processing signals            Etiology  ­cause of disorder/delay  ­why are they having issues?  ­organic/functional cause?  Age of onset  ­result of developmental or acquired?  ­developmental examples: autism, cerebral palsy, down syndrome  ­acquired examples: noise induced hearing loss, stroke (sometimes leading to  aphasia; think of aphasia as tied to strokes, in this class)  ­degenerative: example: ALS  ­ability to progress over time is emotionally impacted    Form  ­Phonology (sound): trouble with word sounds  ­not saying beginnings or ends of words  ­Morphology (words): trouble with parts of words  ­plural/past/present tense trouble  ­not correct use of plural ‘s’  ­Syntax (sentences): sentence trouble    Context  ­Some clients have trouble with memory    Use  ­social aspects of language trouble  ­inappropriate humor    Speech    Articulation  ­understanding  Fluency  ­example: the comedian with cerebral palsy  ­not a rhythm to the voice, broken up  Voice  ­producing sound  ­breath support/control  ­larynx    Hearing    Deafness  ­could be developmental or acquired (usually hard of hearing if acquired)    Auditory Processing Disorder  ­hearing is normal, but input/processing is a problem  ­processing issue between brain and auditory nerve    Assessment and Treatment      Disorder  ­notice a dialect difference; that is not necessarily a disorder  Disturbance  ­short term disability/temporary loss    *Our focus will be on disorders and a little bit on dialect    Assessment  ­gather information from caregivers, patient, teacher, parents  ­also spend time with client and acquire information one­on­one  Intervention  ­treatment  ­assessment drives treatment  ­objectives: behavioral  ­some methods more/less evidence  ­pragmatic objectives need social/group environment   ­family involvement is important  ­measuring effectiveness through data collection  ­continue to monitor/assess the progress a child is making as time goes on    What constitutes a disorder?  ­Questions like, “is the individual intelligible all the time, or only around close  circle of family/friends?  ­no easy answer!  ­combine information from patient that you are able to see, and the testing  results, in making a conclusion    ­Disorders can affect any aspect of   ­speech  ­language  ­reading and writing  ­expressive (what we’re saying) and receptive (understanding)  ­ASHA definition of a disorder    Dialects  ­difference, not disorder  ­example: Appalachian dialect    Is there a problem?  ­Referral: could be given by teacher, pediatrician, parent, etc.  ­Screening: brief evaluation; best example: screening given to all children before  they enter kindergarten  ­Screening is a snapshot of assessment  ­Assessments: types may vary by age, suspected issue  ­Severity: mild? Severe? Impacting ability to function in home, school or  community environment?  ­identify etiology (cause)  ­prognosis: expected effects of treatment    Identify functional communication needs  ­moving outside of the standardized tests for disorder, and focusing more on  what information you’ve collected from interviews, interactions with the client, and  your own personal observations    Case History  ­background: family, birth history, past medical conditions  ­this information is obtained by conducting opening interview, also having  parent/other adult fill out information sheet     


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