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PSYC 265

by: Hannah Rapp
Hannah Rapp
GPA 4.0

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Week 2 notes
Drugs and Behavior
Dr. Stoltenberg
Class Notes
25 ?




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Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Rapp on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 265 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. Stoltenberg in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Drugs and Behavior in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Nebraska Lincoln.

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Date Created: 09/05/16
Theories of Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse • A “Layperson” Theory • Children have countless opportunities to observe the use and side effects of alcohol and drugs Psychological Perspective • The scientific study of behavior and mental processes • systematic observation,measurement, experiment, and hypothesis testing • behavior includes overt actions and covert processes such as cognition and emotion assume behavior is not random, but governed • • basic research has no immediate practical goal, but aims to increase knowledge • applied research aims to solve a practical problem Goals of Psychology • Describe • ex) alcoholism runs in families • ex) college students binge drink more than non-students • Predict • ex) people with family history are at a higher risk for alcoholism ex) Dan, the student, is more likely to drink more than Tim, the Plumber • • Explain • ex) genes and environment • ex) binge drinking is a cultural norm • Control • ex) change the living environment or abstain • ex) try to change social norm through PSA (public service announcement • Etiology- study of causation • basic research to identify influence factors • risk factors • recognition • biological factors • personality learning • • social • developmental factors • culture • Treatment studies • applied research to determine which treatment approaches are useful pharmacological effective? • • brief intervention? How is Behavior Studied? Systematically observed behavior and test hypothesis • • Naturalistic observation: observe in environment • Case studies: in-depth observation of one person over a period of time • Correlation: identify relationships among variables • Some causation required for interpretations • correlation doesn't mean causation • if there is causation, it is usually a correlation • Convergent evidence- strengthens case for casual interpretation • Experiments • manipulative variable (independent) • control group (placebo) • experimental (alcohol) • measure behavior outcome (dependent) • Animal Studies • can add knowledge to problem • some can only be studied in humans (social information) • humans and animals have similar biology • all animal studies are ethical • Psychological theories, including for substance use examine: • Intrapersonal factors( within person) • sensitivity to drug • personality • motivation Interpersonal factors( between persons) • • parents and peers • media • romantic partners Social Learning Theory • Social norms: implicit and explicit; established by various group to regulate the behaviors of others • groups often require adherence to norms when and where the drug is used • • how much is acceptable? • how many are under the peer influence? • Norms about substances are first learned at a young age • Michigan Longitudinal Study • Children ages 3-6 asked to identify alcohol Children with alcoholic parents identified more • • Identified dads are being the main alcoholics in family • Expectancies- what effects drugs will have on you • subjective experience • behavior • learned from others (through observation or explicitly) prior to use modified through experience • • these psychological effects are independent of alcohol’s pharmacological effects Family and Peer Influence • both influence the use of drugs and alcohol (whether is positive or negative) across early adolescence and adulthood • deviant peers: number of times during the past week they has spent time with peers who “get in trouble, fight a lot, or take things that don't belong to them.” • low levels of parental monitoring and higher number of deviant peers is associated with substance use at age 13. • later in high school, family relationships and deviant peers were both significant predictors of use • an important aspect of family influence is on choice of friends and peer group composition • emphasizes importance of family-based intervention in middle school • in high school, family influence doesn't matter as much Alcoholism • Characteristics of alcoholism suggest subtypes age of onset • • severity • comorbidity • Underlying causes may differ • social factors • biological factors Prevention and/or treatment approaches may differ • • Type I Alcoholics (Milieu-Limited) • age of onset- after 25 • inability to abstain- less likely • fighting and arrest- less likely • loss of control- less likely fear/guilt over dependence- more likely • • family history- less likely • alcohol related problems- less likely • psychopathology- less likely • Type II Alcoholics (Male-Limited) • age of onset- before 25 inability to abstain- more likely • • fighting and arrest- more likely • loss of control- more likely • fear/guilt over dependence- less likely • family history- more likely • alcohol related problems- more likely psychopathology- more likely • Age of onset appear to be a good indicator of type Early onset alcoholism appears to be more severe Biological Vulnerability Models • Biologically based individual differences produce different levels of risk for addiction • Enhanced Reinforcement Model • sensitivity to reinforcing effects of drug • sensitivity to intoxication effects of drug • using the drug provides more reward and less impairment= more drug use • Negative Effect Model • temperamental factors leading to negative affect (depression/anxiety) coupled with stress • drug use to self medicate • Biopsychosocial Model many factors influence a person’s risk for SUD across lifespan • • No simple, single cause Mediators and Moderators how does X cause Y? • • Mediation • What are underlying processes? • When does X affect Y? • Moderation • Mediation- think “Underlying Cause” Factor Outcome (family history) (alcohol use disorder) Mediator (norms, genes) • ex) growing up with someone who drinks may cause you to think it is okay to drink • Moderation- one variable changes direction or strength relationship between predictor and outcome • low stress low risk (exercise when stressed) • high stress high risk (drink/drug use when stressed) Defining Amount of Drinking • Quantity- how much typically consumed on a drinking day • Frequency- how often a person drinks • Quantity-frequency Index- total volume of consumption • Misses important information about patterns • 1 beer x 30 days= 30 • 15 beers x 2 days= 30 Binge drinking- 5 or more drinks on one occasion for men and 4 for women in a 2 hr period • ( reaching 0.08% Blood Alcohol Content) • Heavy episodic drinking- 5 or more binges per month • maximum quantity in 24 hr= “max drinks” The Standard Drink • the standard drink consists of 0.5 oz of pure ethanol • Beer (3-5% Alcohol by Volume) • 12 oz of 4.2% ABV= 0.5 oz ethanol • Wine (12-14% Alcohol by Volume) 4.2 oz of 12% ABV= 0.5 oz ethanol • • 3.6 oz of 14% ABV= 0.5 oz ethanol • Hard Liquor (40-50% Alcohol by Volume) 1.25 oz of 40% ABV= 0.5 oz ethanol • • 1 oz of 50% ABV= 0.5 oz ethanol • How to Calculate • 1) Calculate Volume of Alcohol • % alcohol by volume (0.5 ABV) x oz. (16)= 0.8 oz • 2) Calculate number of drinks • take previous answer (0.8)/ 0.5 oz alcohol= 1.6 drinks Ex) 23.5 oz @ 12%= 2.82 oz of pure ethanol 5.64 drinks Defining Tobacco Use • Total consumption- # of cigarettes a day • doesn't account for • temporal patterns • different inhalation methods • # of puffs, puff volume, depth, duration type of cigarette • • filter, tar level, nicotine level, methanol Issues in Measuring Illict Drugs Difficult to identify “standard dose” • • What is a “standard” joint? • What is a “standard” line of cocaine? • Different strains of marijuana have different potencies • Some drugs are “cut” with inert ingredients to reduce potency • Self-report may be less reliable • won't know actual dose may be less truthful because of it being illegal •


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