Chapter 1 Convergence
Chapter 1 Convergence Com 240
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bennett Notetaker on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Com 240 at University at Buffalo taught by Kristen Maki in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Survey of Mass Communication in Communication at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
Mass Com. Unit 1 08/30/2016 ▯ Convergence- the coming together of computing, telecommunications, and media in a digital environment Influences us economically, socially, and culturally It’s an ONGOING phenomenon 4 main functions of convergence o Surveillance (Twitter or the news [what’s going on])- public relations o Correlation (why it’s important & context) o Cultural transmission (sharing information within own group or culture to culture) o Entertainment (escape) 3 types of convergence o Technological Convergence: specific types of media (print, audio, video Digital media Online communication networks o Economic Convergence: merging of internet or telecommunications companies with traditional media companies Ex. NBC Universal Consolidation- process of merging old and new media Independent media enterprises are successful because they are under one umbrella o Cultural Convergence: when popularity emerges globally Ex. Sex and the City Ben & Jerry’s is offered all over the world How we consume, create, and distribute media has changed culturally Shift from passive/silent audience to an audience who can now create their own YouTube There are 8 implications of convergence o Media organization changes o Media type changes o Media content changes o Media use changes o Media distribution changes o Media audience changes o Media profession changes o Attitude and value changes Media Organization Changes: o Use to have predetermined schedules (tv show times, when the paper would come out) o “Centralized” media organizations when a central unit or an individual control each aspect of the organization (production, distribution, and marketing) o Internet-based media is less centralized o Convergence is creating consolidation o Oligopoly- analog and digital media are being consolidated into the hands of very powerful, wealthy, and large companies Media Type Changes o Radio has changed (now there is radio online) and can now include images o Free print media have more free-speech protection than media Media Content Changes o Hyperlinks- something you can click on to take you to another page (internet type of media content change) Interactive advertisements on websites o Things are more demand now, we need to see/hear things instantly o Digitization- the transformation of how and when media organizations distribute their content o Wiki- a type of website that can be edited by anyone Media Use Changes o “Encore” performances (showing movies or shows multiples times in a row or on multiple nights) o Portable media devices o Wi-Fi Media Distribution Changes o Rapid global communication Everyone anywhere can find things out about companies which can be bad Steve Jobs had heart attack and Apple’s shares went down because people found out so fast o Viral marketing- spreading news and information about media content through word of mouth (emails, group chats) o Peer-to-Peer (P2P)- computer communications model where all users have equal abilities to store, send, and accept communications from other users o User-generated content (UGC)- content created by the general public for distribution by digital media Media Audience Changes o Audiences use to be anonymous and couldn’t interact or give feedback but now they can a large scale due to email and other online forums o Produsers- notion that audiences cannot simply be considered consumers anymore but also sometimes take an active role in producing content information Media Profession Changes o How people do their jobs is changing o Citizen journalism- audience-generated feedback and news coverage o New skills need to be learned but employees still need to know the background Attitude and Value Changes o A lot of interaction is done online in terms of reviews and reputations of places (trust is crucial) o Different websites will use rankings or “karma points” to prove legitimacy o Behavioral targeting- advertisers determine consumer buying patterns and preferences in advertising campaigns (electronic transactions) o Cookies- information that a website puts on a user’s local hard drive so that it can recognize when that computer accesses the website again. (password recognition and personalization) ▯ Mass Communication in the Digital Age Interpersonal communication- communication between 2 or more individuals Mass communication- communication to a large group or groups of people that remains largely unknown to the sender of the message Interpersonal Communication: o Interactive o Flowing o Typically not anonymous o Medium- a communication channel like talking on a phone o Meanings can be misconstrued when not in person Mass Communication: o Any form of technological form of communication o No immediate feedback o Synchronous media- media that takes place in real time (live television) o Asynchronous media- media that do not require the audience to assemble at a given time (printed materials or recorded stuff) o Time shift- recording something to view later (DVR) o Shannon & Weaver Transmission Model* Information source Transmitter Channel Receiver Destination o Schramm’s Simplified Communication Model* A source who encodes A message or signal that is transmitted Where message is received and decoded FEEDBACK ▯ Mass Communication and Convergence Mass communication and interpersonal communication are trying to adopt aspects from one another Blogs- type of website in which a person posts regular journal or diary entries with the posts arranged chronologically ▯ Theories of Communication Rhetoric Transmission models ▯ Critical Theory and Cultural Studies Critical theory- theoretical approach broadly influenced by Marxist notions of the role of ideology, exploitation, capitalism and the economy in understanding and eventually transforming society Cultural studies- a framework in studying theories of culture and communication that shuns the positivist scientific approach used by scholars in the empirical school and that tries to examine by mass media Critical theorists criticize “traditional” social science because they don’t agree that by using statistical techniques with “natural laws” of society and behavior can be determined James Carey- communications scholar and historian who has shaped a cultural-studies approach to communication theory ▯ Television: The Future of Convergence Product Placement- a form of advertising in which brand-name goods or services are placed prominently within programming content that is otherwise devoid of advertising, demonstrating with advertising Superstation- a local TV station that reaches a national audience by beaming its programming nationwide via satellite to local cable systems Media literacy o Presentation (dictionary) looks at how things are written and physical dimensions o Political/Social messages (embedded with media) o Ownership regulation (influences how material is presented ▯ ▯
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