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class notes and textbook

by: Hayoung Lee

class notes and textbook BIO 2430

Hayoung Lee
Texas State
GPA 3.9
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textbook ch 1 and first packet of notes, enjoy.
Human Anatomy and Physiology
T. Prabhakaran
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayoung Lee on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 2430 at Texas State University taught by T. Prabhakaran in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biomedical Sciences at Texas State University.

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Date Created: 09/05/16
Anatomy and Physiology TOPICS: introduction; structure and function of an organ; structural organization; homeostasis 08.29.16 * in class *  Anatomy (means to cut apart) is the study of body structures and their relationship  Physiology is the study of function of a body structure (ex. What the structure does and how it works)  Function reflects the structure like what an organ does depends on how it is made.  Organization of the Human body: human body, like any other living thing on earth, shows different levels of organization o Chemical level – like everything else on earth, living and non- living, the human body is made of atoms and molecules, but only the living things make the biomolecules we know as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids and are organized into cells in all living things (organisms) o Cellular level – cell is the structural and functional unit of a living body. In a multi-celled body, cells are specialized to perform different functions, but all of them share a few common features such as a plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and a nucleus. o Tissue level – cells with similar structure, function and common origin make up a tissue. The four main types of tissues that make up the human body are epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissues. o Organ level – two or more tissues working together and performing a specific function to make up an organ (ex. Stomach, heart) o System level (organ system level) – two or more organs working together to perform a life function like digestion, make up an organ system o Organismal level – all organ systems working together to keep the body alive make up the organism (the living body). There are 11 organ systems:  Integumentary – protection, heat regulation  Skeletal – support, protection  Muscular – movement, posture  Nervous – coordination, control  Endocrine – chemical coordination by means of hormones  Cardiovascular – blood circulatory system, distribution of nutrients, water, oxygen, etc within the body  Lymphatic – returns body fluid (lymph) to blood circulation; white blood cells called lymphocytes are mainly located in Anatomy and Physiology the lymphatic system, so it is associated with the “immune response to infection” or long term protection from disease causing microbes (pathogens)  Respiratory – intake of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide  Digestive – breaking down large food molecules to small absorbable molecules using enzymes  Urinary – removal of metabolic wastes and water-ion balance  Reproductive – maintain the continuity of life, by making sex cells or gametes (sperm and ova) o Six important life processes that these organ systems are responsible for are:  Metabolism  Responsiveness  Movement  Growth  Differentiation  Reproduction o Homeostasis – is the ability of living things to maintain a relatively stable condition within the body. Within the human body, the trillions of cells are surrounded by a watery fluid, called interstitial fluid. As the cells get the nutrients, water, oxygen, etc from this fluid, drastic changes in the composition of this fluid will disrupt cellular functions o All organ systems working together help regulate with such changes, and provide he cells with an ideal or optimal set of conditions within the body; the interstitial fluid (aka internal environment) changes all the time, but these changes are kept within a narrow range by homeostatic control mechanism (aka self regulation)  Ex. The heat regulation when your body temperature increases from the optimum (97-99 F). Sweat glands automatically release sweat which evaporates and brings the body temperature back to normal. o The nervous system and endocrine system are the main controlling centers of homeostasis o Any chemical or physical factor that changes the internal environment (interstitial fluid) such as increase/decrease of water, or increase/decrease of heat is termed as a stimulus. One or more organs or organ systems will respond to the stimulus and restore the normal (optimal condition) 08.31.16 Anatomy and Physiology  Homeostasis is maintained by two feed-back systems, negative and positive.  3 components that make up the feed back systems are o Receptor – this detects the stimulus (change in the interstitial fluid) and sends the information to the controlling center (usually the brain) o Control center – receives the information regarding a change, and sends messages to the effector o Effector (usually muscles and glands) – responds to the original stimulus and restores the optimum condition  A negative feedback system reverses a change in a controlled condition o Ex. Blood pressure regulation, heat regulation by sweat glands, blood sugar regulation by insulin o Most “self regulations” in the body are by negative feedbacks  Positive feedbacks strengthen the original stimulus, thereby increasing the force of the response. This tends to give a “cascade effect” where each response makes the original stimulus stronger, till the maximum possible response occurs. o Ex. Effect of a hormone called oxytocin in child birth; blood clotting o The internal system is constantly changing and is controlled and maintained within an optimal range  Ex. Blood pH; increases/decreases and maintained between a narrow range, and is optimal at 7.35-7.45; H+ ions increase acidity o Positive feedbacks are rare compared to negative feedbacks  All organ systems play a part in maintaining homeostasis, whereby internal conditions are kept within a narrow range of changes. o When homeostasis is disrupted by a drastic increase/decrease of any of the components of the interstitial fluid (internal environment like increase/decrease of water, blood sugar, body heat), we suffer from homeostatic disorders o As one gets older, homeostatic controls become less efficient, and organ systems begin to fail to provide the optimal or ideal set of conditions for the cells to function Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy and Physiology  Cell structure and function: a cell is the basic structural and functional unit of a living body o There are about 100 trillion cells in a human body, with about 200 different kinds of cells. All these cells share a few common features, like nucleus, plasma membrane, cytoplasm * textbook * 1.1 Anatomy and Physiology Defined  Anatomy – the structure or study of structure of the body and the relation of its parts to each other  Physiology – science that deals with the functions of an organism or its part 1.2 Levels of Organization and Body Systems  1. Chemical level – includes atoms, the smallest units of matter that participate in chemical reactions, and molecules, two or more atoms joined together Anatomy and Physiology  2. Cellular level – molecules combine to form structures at the next level of organizations. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of an organisms.  3. Tissue level – the next level of structural organization. Tissues are groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together to perform a particular function  4. Organ level – different kinds of tissues join together to form body structures. Organs usually have a recognizable shape, are composed of two or more different types of tissues, and have specific functions.  5. System level – a system consists of related organs that have a common function.  6. Organismal level – largest level, all systems of body combine to make an organism  Components and Functions of the 11 principal systems of the human body o Integumentary  Components: skin and structures associated with such as hair, nails, sweat and oil glands, and the subcutaneous layer  Functions: helps regulate body temperature, protects the body, eliminates some wastes, helps make vitamin D, detects sensations such as touch, pressure, pain, warmth, cold, and stores fat and provides insulation  Skeletal  Components: bones and joints of the body and their associated cartilages  Functions: supports and protects the body, provides specific area for muscle attachment, assists with body movements, stores cells that produce blood cells, and stores minerals and lipids (fats)  Muscular  Components: specifically refers to skeletal muscle tissue, which is muscle usually attach to bones (other muscle tissues include smooth and cardiac)  Functions: participates in bringing about body movements such as walking, maintaining posture, producing hear  Nervous Anatomy and Physiology  Components: brain, spinal cord, nerves, and special sense organs such as the eyes and ears  Functions: regulates body activities through nerve impulses by detecting changes in the environment, interpreting the changes, and responding to the changes by bringing about muscular contractions or glandular secretions  Endocrine  Components: all glands and tissues that produce chemical regulators of body functions called hormones  Functions: regulates body activities through hormones transported by the blood to various target organs  Cardiovascular  Components: blood, heart, and blood vessels  Function: heart pumps blood through blood vessels; blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells and carbon dioxide and wastes away from cells, and helps regulate acidity, temperature, and water content of body fluids; blood components help defend against disease and mend damaged blood vessels  Lymphatic system and immunity  Components: lymphatic fluid (lymph) and vessels; spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and tonsils; cells that carry out immune responses (B cells, T cells, and others)  Functions: returns proteins and fluid to blood; carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood; contains sites of maturation and proliferation of B cells and T cells that protect against disease – causing microbes  Respiratory system  Components: lungs and air passageways such as the pharynx (throat), larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe), and bronchial tubes within the lungs  Functions: transfers oxygen from inhaled air to blood and carbon dioxide from blood to exhaled air; helps regulate acidity of body fluids; air flowing out of lungs through vocal cords produces sounds Anatomy and Physiology  Digestive system  Components: organs of the gastrointestinal tract, including the mouth, pharynx (throat), esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, rectum, and anus; also includes accessory digestive organs that assist in digestive processes, such as the salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas  Functions: physical and chemical breakdown of food; absorbs nutrients; eliminates solid wastes  Urinary system  Components: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra  Functions: produces, stores, and eliminates urine; eliminates wastes and regulates volume and chemical composition of blood; helps regulate acid – base balance of body fluids; maintains body’s mineral balance; helps regulate red blood cell production  Reproductive systems  Components: gonads (testes in males and ovaries in females) and associated organs: uterine (fallopian) tubes, uterus, and vagina in females, and epididymis, ductus (vas) deferens, and penis in males; also mammary glands in females  Functions: gonads produce gametes (sperm or oocytes) that unite to form a new organism and release hormones that regulate reproduction and other body processes; associated organs transport and store gametes, mammary glands produce milk  Concept check: o Which body systems help eliminate wastes?  digestive, urinary, and integumentary 1.3 Life Processes  Metabolism – the sum of all the chemical processes that occur in the body, including the breakdown of large, complex molecules into smaller, simpler ones and the building up of complex molecules from smaller, simpler ones  Responsiveness – the body’s ability to detect and respond to changes in it’s environment. Ex. Nerve cells respond to changes in the environment by generating electrical signals, known as nerve impulses, in which muscle cells respond by contracting  Movement – includes motion of the whole body, individual organs, single cells, and even tiny organelles inside cells Anatomy and Physiology  Growth – an increase in body size; may be due to an increase in 1. Size of existing cells, 2. Number of cells, or 3. The amount of material surrounding cells  Differentiation – the process whereby unspecialized cells become specialized cells. Specialized cells differ in structure and function from the unspecialized cells that gave rise to them.  Reproduction – refers to either 1. The formation of new cells for growth, repair, or replacement, or 2. The production of a new individual  Autopsy – a post mortem (after death) examination of the body and dissection of it’s internal organs to confirm or determine the cause of death.  Concept check: The entire human body as well as organs can move, but individual cells and organelles cannot. o False 1.4 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits  Homeostasis – maintenance or relatively stable conditions, ensuring that the body’s internal environment remains constant despite changes inside and outside the body  Feedback system – maintains homeostasis, which is a cycle of events in which a condition in the body is continually monitored, evaluated, changed, re-monitored, re-evaluated, etc. o Each monitored condition Is called a controlled condition o Any disruption that causes a change in a controlled condition is a stimulus.  Can be internal: blood glucose level  Or external: intense heat, lack of oxygen o Three basic components make up a feedback system:  Receptor – a body structure that monitors changes in a controlled condition and sends information called the input (nerve impulses/chemical signals) to a control center. Ex. Nerve endings  Control center – in the body (for ex) the brain sets the range of values within a controlled condition should be maintained, evaluates the input it receives from receptors, and generates output commands when they are needed  Effector – a body structure that receives output from the control center and produces a response that changes the controlled condition. Nearly every organ/tissue can behave as an effector. Ex. When body temp drops sharply, the control center (brain) sends nerve impulses to skeletal muscles (effectors) that cause you to shiver, which generates heat and raises your temperature Anatomy and Physiology  What is the basic difference between negative and positive feedback systems? o Negative FS: the response reverses a change in a controlled condition o Positive FS: the response strengthens the change in a controlled condition  Negative feedback system – reverses or reduces the stimulus with a change in a controlled condition as a mechanism of response  Positive feedback system – tends to strengthen or reinforce a change in one of the body’s controlled conditions. The response affects the controlled condition differently than in negative. The control center still provides commands to an effector, but It produces a physiological response that adds/reinforces the initial change in controlled condition. o Ex. Controlled condition: stretching the cervix  Stretch sensitive nerve cells in cervix  Brain interprets and releases oxytocin  Muscled in the wall of uterus contract more forcefully  Response: baby’s body stretches the cervix more  Disorder – any abnormality of structure and/or function  Disease – more specific term for an illness characterized by a recognizable set of symptoms and signs  Symptoms – subjective changes in body functions that are not apparent to an observer, like headache or nausea  Signs – are objective changes that a clinician can observe and measure, such as bleeding, swelling, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, a rash, or paralysis  Diagnosis – the identification of a disease/disorder based on a scientific evaluation of the patient’s symptoms and signs, medical history, physical examination, and sometimes data from laboratory tests. o Medical history – consists of collecting info about events that might be related to patient illness, including the chief complaint, history of present illness, past medical problems, family medical problems, and social history o Physical examination – an orderly evaluation of the body and it’s functions, including inspection (observing body for changes that are abnormal), palpation (feeling body surfaces with the hands), auscultation (listening to body sounds using a stethoscope), percussion (tapping on body surfaces and listening to the resulting echo), and measuring vital signs such as temperature, pulse, respiratory rate, and blood pressure  Concept check: A change in blood pressure would be detected by which part of a feedback system? o Receptor  The functions of the receptors and control centers in a negative feedback system are the same as those of a positive feedback system Anatomy and Physiology o True  Which of the following could be a symptom of food poisoning? o Stomach ache 1.5 Aging and Homeostasis  Aging – a normal process characterized by a progressive decline in the body’s ability to restore homeostasis o Produces observable changes in structure and function and increases vulnerability to stress and disease o Changes are apparent: wrinkled skin, gray hair, loss of bone mass, decreased muscle mass/strength, diminished reflexes, etc.  Concept check: lung capacity increases with age? o False 1.6 Anatomical Terms  Anatomical position – A position of the body universally used in anatomical descriptions in which the body is erect, the head is level, they eyes face forward, the upper limbs are at the sides, the palms face forward, and the feet are flat on the floor o Prone – the body is lying face down o Supine – the body is lying face up  Head – the superior part of a human, cephalic to the neck. The superior or proximal part of a structure. o Skull – part of the head that encloses and protects the brain o Face – the front portion of the head that includes the eyes, nose, mouth, forehead, cheeks, and chin  Neck – the part of the body connecting the head and supports the trunk.  Trunk – consists of the shoulder, armpit, arm (portion of the limb from the shoulder to the elbow), forearm (portion of the limb from the elbow to the wrist), wrist, and hand.  Upper limb – each one is attached to the trunk and consists of the shoulder, armpit, arm (portion of the limb from the shoulder to the elbow), forearm (portion of the limb from the elbow to the wrist), wrist, and hand.  Lower limb – each is also attached to the trunk and consists of the buttock, thigh (portion of the limb from the hip to the knee), leg (portion of the limb from the knee to ankle), ankle, and food. o Groin –area on the front surface of the body, marked by a crease on each side, where the trunk attaches to the thighs  Directional terms – words that describe the position of one body part relative to another o Superior (cephalic or cranial) – toward the upper part of the body Anatomy and Physiology  Ex. Knee is superior to the ankle o Inferior (caudal) – toward the lower part of the body  Ex. The stomach is inferior to the lungs o Anterior (ventral) – nearer to or at the front of the body  Ex. The sternum (breastbone) is anterior to the heart o Posterior – nearer to or at the back of the body  Ex. The esophagus is posterior to the trachea o Medial – nearer to the midline, and imaginary vertical line that divides the body into equal right and left sides  Ex. The ulna is medial to the radius o Lateral – farther from the midline or midsagittal plane  Ex. The lungs are lateral to the heart o Intermediate – between two structures  Ex. The transverse colon is intermediate to the ascending and descending colons o Ipsilateral – on the same side of the body as another structure  Ex. The gallbladder and ascending colon are ipsilateral o Contralateral – on the opposite side of the body from another structure  Ex. The ascending and descending colons are contralateral o Proximal – nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk; nearer to the point of origin or the beginning  Ex. The humerus is proximal to the radius o Distal – farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk; farther from the point of origin or the beginning  Ex. The phalanges are distal to the carpals o Superficial (external) – toward or on the surface of the body  Ex. The ribs are superficial to the lungs o Deep (internal) – away from the surface of the body  Ex. The ribs are deep to the skin of the chest and back  Planes – imaginary flat surfaces that pass through body parts o Sagittal plane – a plane that divides the body or organs into left and right portions. o Midsagittal plane – A vertical plane through the midline of the body that divides the body or organs into equal right and left sides, also called median plane o Parasagittal plane – a vertical plane that does not pass through the midline and that divides the body or organs into unequal left and right portions o Frontal plane (coronal) – A plane at a right angle to a midsagittal plane that divides the body or organs into anterior (front) and posterior (back) positions o Transverse plane (horizontal/cross-sectional) – a plane that divides the body or organs into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) positions Anatomy and Physiology o Oblique plane – passes through body/organ at an angle between the transverse plane and a sagittal plane or between the transverse and frontal plane  Concept check: Which term refers to the entire head? o Cephalic  The lungs are _____ to the ribcage o Deep  Which plane would allow one to view the lungs, heart, and spinal cord? o Transverse  In the correct anatomical position, head and eyes are forward, feet are flat on the floor and palms are turned posteriorly (backward) o False 1.7 Body Cavities  Body cavities – spaces within the body that contain, protect, separate, and support internal organs o Cranial cavity – formed by cranial bones and contains brain o Vertebral canal – formed by vertebral column and contains spinal cord and the beginnings of spinal nerves o Thoracic cavity – chest cavity; contains pleural and pericardial cavities and mediastinum  Pleural cavity – each surrounds a lung; the serious membrane of each pleural cavity is the pleura  Pericardial cavity – surrounds the heart; the serious membrane of the pericardial cavity is the pericardium  Mediastinum – central portion of thoracic cavity between the lungs; extends from sternum to vertebral column and from first rib to diaphragm; contains heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and several large blood vessels o Abdominopelvic cavity – subdivided into abdominal and pelvic cavities  Abdominal cavity – contains stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and most of large intestine; the serious membrane of the abdominal cavity is the peritoneum  Pelvic cavity – contains urinary bladder, portions of large intestine, and internal organs of reproduction o Viscera – organs inside the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities o Membrane – a thin, pliable tissue that covers, lines, partitions, or connects structures o Serous membrane – a membrane that lines a body cavity that does not open to the exterior.  1. Parietal layer – lines the walls of the cavities Anatomy and Physiology  2. Visceral layer – covers and adheres to the viscera within the cavities  Between the layers is a potential space that contains a small amount of lubricating fluid (serous fluid) between the layers, allowing the viscera to slide during movements like when lungs inflate and deflate.  Pleura – The serous membrane that covers the lungs and lines the walls of the chest and the diaphragm  Pericardium – a loose-fitting membrane that encloses the heart, consisting of a superficial fibrous layer and a deep serous layer  Peritoneum – the largest serous membrane of the body that lines the abdominal cavity and covers the viscera within the cavity  Abdominopelvic regions (9) o Quadrants – right upper quadrant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), and left lower quadrant (LLQ)  More commonly used by clinicians to describe the site of an abdominopelvic pain, mass, or other abnormality o Abdominopelvic regions are used more for anatomical studies Right Epigastric region Left hypochondriac hypochondriac region region Right lumbar Umbilical region Left lumbar region region Right inguinal Hypogastric Left inguinal region region region  The diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity o True  The stomach is located in which region of the abdominopelvic cavity? o Epigastric region  Epidemiology – people that deal with why, when, and where diseases occur and how they are transmitted within a defined human population  Geriatrics – the science that deals with the medical problems and care of elderly persons  Pathology – the science that deals with the nature, causes, and development of abnormal conditions and the structural and functional changes that diseases produce  Pharmacology – the science that deals with the effects and use of drugs in the treatment of disease Anatomy and Physiology  Epidemiology is the science that deals with medical problems and care of elderly persons o False CHAPTER REVIEW o 1.1 Anatomy and Physiology Defined o Anatomy – the science of structure and the relationships among structures o Physiology – the science of how body structures function o 1.2 Levels of Organization and Body Systems o The human body consists of 6 levels of organization: chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal o Cells – the basic structural and functional units of an organism and the smallest living units in the human body o Tissues – consist of groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together to perform a particular function o Organs – have recognizable shapes, are composed of 2 or more different types of tissues, and have specific functions o Systems – related organs that have a common function o 11 systems of the human body: integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive o The human organism is a collection of structurally and functionally integrated systems. Body systems work together to maintain health, protect against disease, and allow for reproduction of the species o 1.3 Life Processes o All living organisms have certain characteristics that set them apart from non-living things o The life processes in humans include metabolism, responsiveness, movement, growth, differentiation, and reproduction o 1.4 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits o Homeostasis – a condition in which the internal environment of the body remains stable, within certain limits o A large part of the body’s internal environment is interstitial fluid, which surrounds all body cells o Homeostasis is regulated by the nervous and endocrine systems acting together or separately. The nervous system detects body changes and sends nerve impulses to maintain homeostasis. The endocrine system regulates homeostasis by secreting hormones o Disruption of homeostasis come from external and internal stimuli and form psychological stresses. When disruption of homeostasis is mild and temporary, responses of body cells Anatomy and Physiology quickly restore balance in the internal environment. If disruption is extreme, the body’s attempts to restore homeostasis may fail o A feedback system consists of 3 parts: (1) Receptors that monitor changes in a controlled condition and send input to a (2) control center that sets the value at which a controlled condition should be maintained, evaluates the input it receives, and generates output commands when they are needed, and (3) effectors that receive output from the control center and produce a response (effect) that alters the controlled condition o Negative feedback system - If a response reverses a change in a controlled condition  Ex. System that regulates blood pressure. If stimulus causes blood pressure (controlled) to rise, baroreceptors pressure-sensitive nerve cells, the receptors) in blood vessels send impulses (input) to the brain (control center). The brain sends impulses (output) to the heart (effector). As a result, heart rate decreases (response) and blood pressure drops back to normal (restoration of homeostasis) o Positive feedback system – if a response strengthens a change in a controlled condition  Ex. During the birth of a baby. When labor begins, the cervix of the uterus is stretched (stimulus), and stretch- sensitive nerve cells in the cervix (receptors) send nerve impulses (input) to the brain (control center). The brain responds by oxytocin (output), which stimulates the uterus (effector) to contract more forcefully (response). Movement of the fetus further stretches the cervix, more oxytocin is released, and even more forceful contractions occur. The cycle is broken with the birth of baby. o Disruptions of homeostasis (homeostatic imbalances) can lead to disorders, disease, and even death. A disorder is any abnormality of structure and/or function. Disease is a more specific term for an illness with a definite set of signs and symptoms. o Symptoms are subjective changes in body functions that are not apparent to an observer. Signs are objective changes that can be observed and measured o Diagnosis of disease involves identification of symptoms and signs, a medical history, physical examination, and sometimes lab tests o 1.5 Aging and Homeostasis o Aging produces observable changes in structure and function an increases vulnerability to stress and disease o Changes associated with aging occur in all body systems o 1.6 Anatomical Terms o Descriptions of any region of the body assume the anatomical position, in which the subject stands erect facing the observer, Anatomy and Physiology with the head level and the eyes facing forward, the lower limbs parallel and the feet flat on the floor and directed forward, and the upper limbs at the sides, with the palms turned forward o The human body is divided into several major regions: the head, neck, trunk, upper/lower limbs o Within body regions, specific body parts have common names and corresponding anatomical names, such as chest (thoracic), nose(nasal), and wrist (carpal) o Directional terms indicate the relationship of one part of the body to another o Planes are imaginary flat surfaces that divide the body or organs into two parts  Midsagittal plane divides the body/organ into equal right/left sides  Parasagittal plane divides the body/organ into unequal right/left sides  Frontal plane divides the body/organ into superior and inferior portions  Oblique plane passes through the body/organ at an angle between a transverse plane and a sagittal plane, or between a transverse plane and a frontal plane  Sections result from cuts through body structures. They are named according to the plane on which the cut is made: transverse, frontal, or sagittal o 1.7 Body Cavities o Spaces in the body that contain, protect, separate, and support internal organs are called body cavities o Cranial cavity contains the brain, and the vertebral canal contains the spinal cord o Thoracic cavity is subdivided into 3 smaller cavities; a pericardial cavity, which contains the heart, and two pleural cavities, each of which contains a lung o The central portion of the thoracic cavity is the mediastinum. It is located between the lungs and extends from the sternum to the vertebral column and from the neck to the diaphragm. It contains all thoracic organs except the lungs o The abdominopelvic cavity is separated from the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm and is divided into a superior abdominal cavity and an inferior pelvic cavity o Organs in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities are called viscera. Viscera of the abdominal cavity include the stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and most of the large intestine. Viscera of the pelvic cavity include the urinary bladder, portions of the large intestine, and internal organs of the reproductive system. Anatomy and Physiology o To describe the location of organs easily, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into 9 abdominopelvic regions by two horizontal and two vertical lines. o The abdominopelvic cavity may also be divided into quadrants by passing one horizontal line and one vertical line through the umbilicus (navel). The names of the abdominopelvic quadrants are RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, LLQ


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