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Class Lecture on the Pantheon

by: EliLaprea

Class Lecture on the Pantheon ARC2701

Marketplace > Florida International University > Architecture > ARC2701 > Class Lecture on the Pantheon
GPA 2.89

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About this Document

Notes taken from the lecture on the Pantheon in Rome
History of Architecture
Class Notes
Architecture, history, Rome, pantheon
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by EliLaprea on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARC2701 at Florida International University taught by Rifkind in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see History of Architecture in Architecture at Florida International University.


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Date Created: 09/05/16
Rome: the pantheon  One of the most important building for architects in the roman world  Important: o it is well preserved o Different from any other building  Nothing to this scale o Almost unprecedented in terms of space o Metaphysics of roman religion o Philosophical thoughts of the Mediterranean o Political statement= emperors statement of the land under his rule  Surrounded on almost all sides by buildings  Columns are monolithic (made from a single piece of stone. Egyptian granite)  Experience of the pantheon: o Overwhelming in scale  Two openings o 1 for people o 1 for the gods  Composed of three parts: o Dome o drum o Porch on the front (greek temple) o Cubic volume that joins the two  Porch is a reference of the Parthenon (under the patronage of Heracles) o Parthenon has 8 columns on the front (Standard is 6 columns) o Hadrian is familiar to the Parthenon because he traveled in Greece and Egypt  Parthenon is an apex in the Greek society and tried to make the same point in the pantheon o Gives an orientation horizontally and vertically  Poetic: single reference has multiple meanings o Politically: representing his power over the Mediterranean  In Egypt: through the materials granite, coris in Egypt; massiveness;  In Greece: cowry; establishing dominion over Greece; showing importance in Greek philosophy;  Hadrian is the architect and patron  Built at the scale of the gods  Pantheon, “all of the gods”; meant to represent the entire religious system in Rome  Religion kept changing because of all the outside influences  circular form was meant to represent all of the different gods o circle: totality and unity  special version of a circle: sphere and cylinder o sphere: without beginning or end in 3D. no floor o cylinder: drum, floor o dome: represent the dome of the heavens. Totality of the gods.  Oculus: entrance for the gods. 40 ft. in diameter  Massive and volumetric o Pure mass  Rotunda, drum = same thing  The porch prepares you for the experience of the interior o Room inside is bigger than the city outside and the porch is the mediator  Axis: a line draw between two points; Link between two places o Horizontal axis: space of humanity, starts at the porch and ends on the other side of the building o Vertical axis: space of the divine (framed by the oculus)  Oculus is aligned to a disk on the floor  Links the world above to the underworld  Symmetry says that the center is the privileged space  Drum + dome =great sphere o Implies a spherical form o Circle= the divine  Square= mundane world  Semicircular arch: allows you to use less materials to create a larger opening o Dome also does this o Weight of the dome pushes outward. To balance this, the outward wall creates a resistance against the weight  Interior: what differentiates the entrance and the end of the horizontal axis? o The arched top; its larger than the other openings; break in the pattern  Astronomy: o Stars created a relationship, in the philosophical world, to the mundane world  Parthenon is at the center of Athens  The pantheon is located in one of the lower-lying areas; “hidden” o Sat above the agora  Wall around the acropolis established a sacred space within the walls. o Same thing used in the pantheon; emphasize the process of moving into the building of the gods  Dome is exposed concrete on the inside  The drum is brick walls on either ends and inside filled with concrete  Hadrian: o Dome is a mix of the Greek philosophy and a sun cult o Used Corinthian capitals to represent importance of greek philosophy and political dominion o Classical orders: symbolic importance  Corinthian order: key difference in the use of the orders versus the Parthenon  From Doric order in the Parthenon to Corinthian order in the pantheon (Greek  Roman transition)  Why is the pantheon hard to see from all sides: o It was not important for Hadrian to make the building visible


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