PSY100: week 1 class notes 9/1/16
PSY100: week 1 class notes 9/1/16 PSY 100
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lorren Roberts on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100 at Central Michigan University taught by Mark A Deskovitz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 207 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
Chapter 1: Introduction and research methods Origins of Psychology Philosophy: ideas including interactive dualism and the naturenurture issue, limited to only intuition, observation, and logic o Interactive dualism: relationship between mental activity and the brain o Naturenurture: focusing on both environmental factors and genetics Physiology: studies in biology of the functions of living organisms (humans) o How the human brain relates to behavior o Scientific methods used in answering behavior and mental process questions Wilhelm Wundt: credited as the founder of psychology, established the first psychology research lab Edward Titchener: student of Wilhelm Wundt, developed approach of structuralism o Structuralism: break down and study of conscious experiences basic and complex William James and students: first American psychology professor (Harvard), developed approach of functionalism o Functionalism: purpose or function of behavior and mental experiences o Students including G. Stanley Hall, Mary Whiton Calkins, Margaret Floy Washburn, and Francis C. Sumner became prominent American psychologists Sigmund Freud: unconscious psychoanalysis o Theory of personality based on the causes of unconscious behavior John Watson: developed approach of behaviorism scientific investigations focusing only on overt behavior o Overt behavior: behaviors that can be observed, measured, and verified o Behaviorism: study of overt behavior pertaining to the process of learning Carl Rogers: developed approach of humanistic psychology o Humanistic psychology bases off of the conscious experiences of clients o Emphasizes selfdetermination, free will, and choice of human behavior Contemporary Psychology (major perspectives) Biological: study of behavior based on physical aspects including the nervous system, endocrine system, immune system and genetics specifically neuroscience (nervous system and the brain) Psychodynamic: explaining the dynamics of behavior based on the importance of unconscious influences, early life experiences, and interpersonal relationships Behavioral: how observable behaviors can be modified by environmental causes Humanistic: based on a person’s selfconcept, choice, and selfdirection to grow psychologically Cognitive: how mental processes affect behavior including how we process and remember information, develop language, problem solve, and think CrossCultural: study of differences in cultures and how the influence of culture affects behavior Evolutionary: how the principles of evolution can explain psychological behaviors and processes referring to Charles Darwin and natural selection Specialty Areas Biological: relationship between psychological processes and the body (look back at major perspectives) Cognitive: mental processes (look back at major perspectives) Experimental: research focusing on but not limited to processes, principles of learning, emotion, and motivation Developmental: physical, social, and psychological changes that occur through a person’s life what’s appropriate for certain ages Social: how people behave in different social environments alone vs. in a group Personality: study of characteristics that makes a person unique and how they are developed Health: role of factors in development and prevention of illness treatment in areas including stress and coping, psychological factors and physical health, and health enhancing behaviors Educational: school settings how people learn Industrial/organizational: business setting relationship between people and work Clinical: causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of behavioral and emotional disorders treating patients
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