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A&P 2 Chapter 16

by: Katrina Phelps

A&P 2 Chapter 16 biol 227

Katrina Phelps


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These notes cover important information on Chapter 16
Anatomy and Physiology II
Dr. Baker
Class Notes
Endocrine, system
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katrina Phelps on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to biol 227 at Charleston Southern University taught by Dr. Baker in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at Charleston Southern University.


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Date Created: 09/05/16
Chapter 16 ­ The Endocrine System 1.  Define:      A.  hormone:  chemical substance secreted by endocrine glands into extracellular space­  regulates metabolic functions (cause something to happen in target cell), steroid or amino acid  based, some have lasting effects B.  half­life: amount of time for half of hormone to be broken down in the body C.  up regulation:  an increase in some metabolic function      D.  down regulation:  a decrease in some metabolic function 2.  List the 5 main effects a hormone can have on a cell.   1. alter Plasma membrane (more or less permeable) 2. activate/deactivate Enzymes 3.Mitosis 4. up/down regulate Protein synthesis 5. Secretory activity 3.  Define: A.  protein hormone action:  when a hormone can’t penetrate the cell membrane so it binds to a receptor in the membrane causing an enzymatic conversion of ATP  AMP which stimulates a signal  transduction pathway B.  steroid hormone action:  the hormone passes through the membrane due to its chemical  nature where it joins with an intracellular receptor then a DNA receptor protein which then activates or  deactivates a gene 4.  Define these types of control of hormone release:   A.  hormonal:  stimulated by another hormone created by the first endocrine gland (ex:  pituitary) B.  humoral:  caused by altered levels of ions or nutrients (ex: parathyroid) C.  neural:  neural input (neurons and synapses) (example: adrenal medulla) 5.  Describe the pituitary gland:  attached to hypothalamus, bilobed (anterior and posterior) ­posterior directly connected to hypothalamus­ controlled neurally, releases oxytocin and ADH ­anterior controlled hormonally by hormones from hypothalamus 2 6.  List the hormones produced by the anterior pituitary gland and their effects: Hypothalamus ­> GHRH & GHIH ­> anterior pituitary gland 1. FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)­ works with LH for sperm and egg maturation and ovulation 2. GH (growth hormone)­ stimulates bone growth, overproduction leads to giantism,  underproduction leads to dwarfism, overproduction in adult years leads to acromegaly 3. TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)­ stimulates thyroid 4. ACTH (adrenocortizotropic hormone)­ stimulates adrenal cortex 5. PRL (prolactin)­ stimulates milk production in mammary glands 6. LH (lutenizing hormone)­ works with FSH for sperm/egg maturation and ovulation 7.  Explain the physiological relationship of the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland:  the  hypothalamus makes GHRH and GHIH that trigger the release of anterior pituitary hormones 8.  List 2 hormones released by the posterior pituitary and their effects:   Oxytocin­ stimulates smooth muscle contraction around uterus for labor and delivery Antidiuretic hormone­ antagonist to natural diuretics, decreases urine production from kidneys 9.  Define: A.  diuretics:  compounds that increase urine production causing water loss; antagonize ADH;  ex. caffeine and alcohol B.  diabetes insipidus:  ADH deficiency due to damage to hypothalamus or to the posterior  pituitary; causes polyuria and polydipsia C.  prolactinoma:  most common type of pituitary tumor; leads to menstrual disturbances in  females 10.  Describe the location and function of the thyroid gland:  wraps around the anterior surface of the trachea, posterior to the laryns; bilobular, connected by an isthmus 11.  Define the following thyroid gland hormones: A.  thyroglobulin:  secreted by follicle cells; binds with iodine to produce T4 and T3 B.  thyroxine and triiodothyronine: T4 and T3; stimulate metabolism C.  calcitonin:  secreted by parafollicular cells; stimulates Ca2+ uptake into the bone, removing  it from the bloodstream; antagonizes PTH 12.  Define: A.  cretinism:   B.  myxedema:   3 C.  goiter:   D.  Grave’s disease:  hyperthyroidism  irregular heartbeat, weight loss, protrusion of eyeballs  (exopthalamus), nervousness E.  thyroid storm:  an acute hyperthyroidism due to trauma to the thyroid, TH supplement  abuse, or Grave’s disease patients who have stopped treatment; dangerous increase in HR, BP, body  temp, sweating, vomiting, diarrhea 13.  Describe the location and function of the parathyroid glands:   14.  Define:     A.  osteitis cystica fibrosa:  severe example of hyperparathyroidism  hypercalcemia  moth­eaten  bones that break spontaneously     B.  hypoparathyroidism:  low blood level of PTH; leads to hypocalcemia  hyperexcitablity of  neurons  tetany  loss of sensation, muscle twitches, convulsions, respiratory paralysis, death 15.  Describe the location of the adrenal glands:  found on top of each kidney; pyramid­shaped 16.  List 2 anatomical divisions of the adrenal glands, their hormones, and their functions:   17.  Describe the renin­angiotensin system:   18.  Define: A.  Cushing’s syndrome:  too much cortisol  hyperglycemia, muscle and bone loss, high BP,  edema due to water and salt retention; develop a buffalo hump B.  Addison’s disease:  hyposecretion of aldosterone and cortisol  dehydration, low tolerance  to stress C.  adrenogenital syndrome:  too much androgen secretion; in males  early maturation and  aggressive sex drive; females  beard and masculination D.  pheochromocytoma:  tumor of the adrenal medulla  hyperglycemia, fast HR, high BP,  nervousness, sweating 4 E.  hirsutism:  excessive body hair growth due to excessive production of testosterone 19.  Describe the pancreas, its types of endocrine cells, their products, & their functions:   20.  Define: A.  diabetes mellitus type I and II:  type I is when the beta cells are destroyed and the person  can’t make insulin (hyposecretion); type II is when the beta cells stop producing insulin and/or the  body’s cells become resistant to the insulin (hypoactivity) B.  polyuria:  large urine output C.  polydipsia:  excessive thirst D.  polyphagia:  excessive hunger 21.  Define gonads and list their main hormones produced:   22.  Describe the main hormone released by the pineal gland:  melatonin, increased secretion at night time (lack of natural light) contributes to making us sleepy 23.  Define:     A.  atrial natriuretic factor:  ANF; secreted by specialized muscle cells in the heart; signal the  kidney to increase production of salty urine  increases urine output  decreases blood volume     B.  enteroendocrine cells:  scattered cells in the GI tract in the mucosa; secrete several hormones that aid in digestion in response to the presence of food     C.  erythropoietin:       D.  leptin:  


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