Neuro 9/13 Notes
Neuro 9/13 Notes NEUR 0010
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eileen artigas on Monday September 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NEUR 0010 at Brown University taught by Michael Paradiso in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Intro to Neuroscience in Neuroscience at Brown University.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
Neuro 9/13 Neurons are specialized cells- have all organelles others do Nerve cells, muscle cells, bone cell, gland, reproductive cells Brain 3 pounds- size isn’t everything, inner wiring more important Over 150 types of cells in nervous system Two broad categories -neurons -glia The majority of neurons are in the cerebellum. Anatomy of a nerve cell Neurons are polarized Parts of neuron- Dendrites, soma, axons, synapse 1 Cell body- Soma, region where general cell functions take place 2 Dendrites- (extending from soma) neurons receive connections from other neurons 3 Axon- long tubular structure, information, electrical activity propagated form one region of nerve cell to more distant regions, axon covered by thick insulating sheath known as myelin (Multiple sclerosis affects myelin structure) 4 Synapse- axons give rise to terminal branches called synapses, information transfer occurs btwn one neuron and another Electrical and Chemical Communication Electrical- using action potential Chemical- around synapse Presynaptic/ Postsynaptic (relative, complex circuit) Post synaptic neuron gets activated as a result of a release of a transmitter substance from presynaptic neuron Most drugs interact with nervous system in chemical synapse Dendrites Most synapses end on dendrites Special receptors in cell membrane bind a neurotransmitter Synapse Full of specialized structures called synaptic vesicles Neurotransmitter substance packaged in the vesicle Space btwn presynaptic and postsynaptic is called the synaptic cleft Synaptic cleft space- a tightly regulated space whose geometry is governed by a complex infrastructure of adhesion molecules. Dendritic Spines Most excitatory synapses end on dendritic spines Shape and density of spine determines strength of neural interactions Spines change with brain development and learning (anatomy not just dry fixed things) Spine abnormalities and intellectual impairment Extent of spine abnormality correlates with extent of intellectual impairment Fragile X syndrome- most common hereditary form of autism Key Functions of Organelles in Soma 2 key functions 1 Protein synthesis- central dogma of molecular biology (start with DNA (in nucleus within the soma) construct messenger RNA (transcription) mRNA translate it into a protein- uses ribosmoes, rough ER, golgi apparatus 2 Energy- ATP (currency for energy) Krebs Cycle in mitochondria produces adenosine triphosphate or ATP, conversion to ADP releases energy Neuro Cytoskeleton Scaffolding proteins affect neuron shape and function Microfilaments, neuro-filaments, microtubules Microtubules Associated Proteins (MAPs) Regulate the assembly and function of the microtubules E.g. tau protein links microtubules Alzheimer’s Disease Cognitive decline and loss of memory due to neural degeneration in the central nervous system What’s going on? Macro brain- cells die, sulci expand, etc. Microscopic Level Tangled plagues Amyloid ubiquitous in the body, normal Beta amyloid or BA is abnormal- sticky, toxic to neurons- amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles Alzheimer's Disease Progression (B amyloid hypothesis) Beta amyloid clumps into plaques Triggers formation of tangles Beta amyloid changes the shape of Tau (hyperphosphoralates tau) As a function of change, tau can't hold together microtubules, start coming away from each other Neuron dies, can't survive without microtubules Leftover tau- tangle ("neuron gravestone") Distorted tau "infects" other neurons (mad cow disease) Prion disease- misfolded protein interacts with proteins in other healthy cells and distort them too Axons- like dendrites, unique to neurons No ribosomes, no protein synthesis (maybe a little) Most protein synthesis occurs in soma Axoplasmic Transport Most proteins are synthesized in the cell body and shipped down the axon Axon hillock (beginning of axon) Axon terminal (end) Anterograde- toward the terminal- kinesin proteins (motor proteins) Retrograde- away from terminal Disease and axoplasmic transport Cold sores- HSV1 (herpes- infection from saliva, enters through broken skin in a nerve terminal, retrograde to soma, replicates so it can spread, something like stress can posit anterograde back to axon terminal and skin due to stress Rabies- animal bite, saliva, infection, retrograde to soma, replication, cell death, virus infects neighboring cells, death in days to weeks Glia Comes from word glue, it was thought they only hold neurons in place 50-100 billion, electrically insulate cells, protect, nourish Astrocytes -most common glia, Do fill spaces between neurons Also involved in regulating concentrations or environment around neurons Guide neurons in development Protect neurons by taking up toxins Oligodendroglia and Schwann Cells Electrically insulate cell with myelin Increase speed of conduction of electrical conduction down axons Oligo (CNS)- myelinate multiple axons Schwann (PNS)- myelinate one axon Node of Ranvier (no myelination)
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